Thieves, Property Destruction and Loss, the Occult
With Questions and Proposed Answers
Background and printed text: Exodus 22
Exodus 22:1 If he will find the thief in shoveling, and he struck him and he died, there are not bloods to him. 2If the sun rose upon him, bloods are to him! Making peace, he shall-make-peace! If there isn’t to him, and he shall be sold via his theft. 3If, being-found, thou wilt find the theft in his hand, from ox unto ass unto lamb of lives, he will make-peace twice.
4When a man will burn a field or a vineyard, and he will send her burner, and he will burn in another field, he will make-peace: he will make-good his field and he will make-good his vineyard! 5When a fire will exit, and her exit is thorns, and a stack or the arising or the field will be eaten, making-peace, he will make-peace—the kindler with the kindled!
6When a man will give silver or utensils unto his neighbour to guard, and he will be stolen from the house of the man, if the thief will be found, he shall make peace twice! 7If he will not find the thief [or, “If the thief will not be found”], and the husband of the house will approach unto the Elohim if he did not send his hand via the errand of his neighbour!
8Concerning every speech of transgression, concerning ox, concerning ass, concerning lamb, concerning form-fitting-garment, concerning every perishing that he will say that “He is this,” the speech of both of them will come unto the Elohim. Whoever Elohim will ‘culpabilize,’ he shall make-peace twice to his neighbour.
9When a man will give unto his neighbour an ass or ox or lamb and any beast to guard, and he will die or he will be broken or he will be captured, there is no seer, 10a vow of Yehovah shall be between both of them if he did not send his hand into an errand of his neighbour. And his husbands shall take [sing.]. And he will not make-peace. 11And if, stealing, he will steal from with him, he will make-peace to his husbands. 12And if, tearing, he shall be torn, he will bring him unto the torn-[one]. He will not make-peace.
13And when a man will ask from with his neighbour, and he will be broken or dead, his husbands are not with him, making-peace, he shall make-peace. 14If his husbands are with him, he shall not make-peace. If a hire, he came via his hire.
15And when a man will ‘sucker’ a ripe-[woman] who is not betrothed, and he will lie with her, endowing, he will endow her to him to a woman! 16If, refusing, her father will refuse to give her to him, he will weigh silver as a dowry of the ripe-[women].
17A witch shall not live.
18Every bedder with a beast—dying, he shall-be-caused-to-die.
19A sacrificer to elohim shall-be-kherem [devoted to destruction]—except not to Yehovah, Him alone.
20And thou shalt not cheat a sojourner. And thou shalt not oppress him! For ye were sojourners in the land of Egypt!
21Ye shall not humiliate any widow and orphan. 22If, humiliating, thou wilt humiliate him, but-rather, screaming, he will scream unto me! Hearkening, I will hearken-to his scream! 23And my nose will heat! And I will kill you via sword! And your women will be widows and your children orphans!
24If thou wilt bring-near silver with my people, with the humble-[one] with thee, thou shalt not be to him as a creditor! Ye shall not put upon him a bite! 25If, binding, thou wilt bind a fitted-garment of thy neighbour, unto the coming [setting] of the sun thou shalt return him to him. 26For He is her blanket-covering, hers alone. He is his garment to his skin. Via what will he bed? And he shall be, when he shall scream unto me, and I will hearken! For I am favorable!
27Thou shalt not lightly-esteem Elohim.
And thou shalt not curse the carrier in thy people!
28Thou shalt not delay thy fullness and thy weeping. Thou shalt give to me a firstborn of thy children. 29Established, thou shalt do to thine ox, to thy flock. Seven of days he will be with his mother. In the day the eighth thou shalt give him to me!
30And ye shall be mortals of Holy-[One] to me.
And ye shall not eat flesh of a torn-[one] in a field. Ye shall sling him to a dog!
I. A Shoveling Thief (verses 1-3)
If an owner or a responsible person finds a thief in the process of shoveling to dig into a location to steal valuables, and if that person struck the thief so that the thief died, the person who struck the thief is not guilty of bloods—that is, of murder.
Now, if the sun rose upon the thief, and the person struck the thief so that he died, bloods are to him—that is, he is guilty of murder or manslaughter!
If the thief is caught, the thief must make peace! If he has nothing valuable with which to make peace, he will be sold by virtue of his theft.
If an animal such as an ox, ass or lamb is found in his hand (that is, in his possession), he must make peace twice—twice the amount he stole.
1. Who finds this thief, and what are the circumstances under which he finds him? Either the owner of the property or someone who is acting on behalf of an owner discovers a thief in the process of digging his/her way into the area where valuables are kept or where animals are kept. The scene must be dark! If the person clearly sees the thief because there is enough light, this rule does not fit that case!
2. Suppose that the thief isn’t shoveling, but instead is cutting wire or is breaking in by some other means; does that mean that this command cannot be applied? Yehovah nearly always writes His commands in this format. He gives one or two examples; the reader then can extrapolate (a good word meaning to figure out other examples that also fit the rule even when those examples are different from the rule) to other situations. Thus, if the thief is cutting the wire fence to break in, and it is very dark, and the other person strikes the thief so that he dies, “there are no bloods to him.”
3. What does “there are no bloods to him” mean? That means that he did not commit murder or even manslaughter by killing the thief! Those bloods represent future generations (of the thief, in this case); if there are bloods to anyone, that person has committed murder or manslaughter, stopping all future generations that might have yet been born.
4. Must the person try to kill the thief if it is very dark? There is no command to try to kill the thief. This command protects the person who is trying to stop the thief if it is dark because the thief might have a weapon, and the other person wouldn’t be able to see this!
5. What does “If the sun rose upon him, bloods are to him” mean, and why is this? This means that if the sun is up so that there is enough light (in this case, to see whether or not he has a weapon), killing him will be murder! This is because killing a person without proper reason is either murder or manslaughter, and in this case it would be manslaughter.
6. The text states, “Making peace, he shall make peace!” Who must make peace, and how must he make peace? The thief must make peace! He must pay restitution for his attempt to break in and steal!
7. The next statement is, “If there isn’t to him, and he shall be sold via his theft.” What does “If there isn’t to him” mean, and what must occur if this is the case? “If there isn’t to him” means that he doesn’t have anything of value with which to make restitution (that is to make peace by paying for his crime). If this is the case, he, himself, is the valuable item that must be sold! He becomes a slave!
8. What does “thou wilt find the theft in his hand” mean? This means that the stolen item or items is found on his person: in his hand, in his pocket, among the items on his wagon (if he has one).
9. What kinds of stolen items are mentioned in this text? The stolen items are living animals!
10. If he makes peace twice, does this mean that the animal that he stole is one of the two animals that he must give to the owner? No! He must return the original animal(s), and he must give two more of the same kind of animal(s)!
11. If the animal that the thief stole is very valuable, how will this small ‘fine’ stop him from trying this again? The judges in the gates of the cities of Israel can do more to such a man who tries stealing again and again. First, if he cannot pay for the theft, he becomes a slave, and will serve for six years. The judges can order him beaten if he keeps trying to steal. If he tries to steal while it is dark, he can be killed without anyone doing wrong!
II. Burning a Field (verses 4-5)
When a man will burn a field or a vineyard (see questions to learn why), and he is the one who sent the field’s burner—that is, he started the fire, and the fire will burn in another field not belonging to the person, the fire starter must make peace. He must make-good the field he burned and/or the vineyard he burned.
When a fire will exit—that is, go out of bounds, and the exit is because of thorns, and a stack of hay or the arising (that which is growing) or a field will be eaten by the fire, the one who started the fire must make peace. The kindler of the fire must make good on what was kindled!
1. Why would anyone desire to burn his own field or vineyard? This is a normal way to diminish pests (like harmful bugs). Israeli farmers still use this technique (or, they did when I was there).
2. What does “and he will send her burner” mean? It means that the man himself sent the flame that will burn his own field.
3. The next part states, “and he will burn in another field.” Was this intentional? No! It wasn’t intentional. He had no intention of his fire going beyond his own lands.
4. Why does he have to make peace if the land owner next door was also going to burn his own field? If the land owner was going to burn his own field, and if the fire stopped at the border of that man’s field, and if nothing was harmed or destroyed, there would be no need of peace. This text doesn’t assume all of this, however. It assumes that the field next door had valuables in it, like a growing crop, or like an ox cart, or like a house, etc. The one who started the fire must make peace regarding the losses he caused.
5. What if the fire was just accidental—that is, the man who started it took every precaution so that it wouldn’t go into another man’s field, but the winds picked up at the last moments, and took the fire into the next field? It doesn’t matter what caused the fire to go beyond the fire starter’s field; working with fire always can potentially do this! Thus, if the person desires to take risks by starting a fire, he will be held responsible for what the fire does!
6. Suppose that a man burns ten other fields, and he cannot pay for them; what will occur? He must make good on each field. If he cannot do this, he will become a slave of each field owner, one after the other (I propose), serving each for six years, along with his family members. (All family members living on that property are owned by the land, and are therefore ‘saleable’—meaning that they can be sold as valuables to the land. Again, I am claiming that the land owns the persons on it; I Iearned thisfrom the book of Ruth. When Naomi’s land was redeemed, Ruth was redeemed with the land.)
7. What does “When a fire will exit, and her exit is thorns” mean? This refers to a fire going out of control, and following a trail of thorns (usually these plants burn very well and very rapidly, and are not crop plants). Thus, this fire could have been set for any reason, and the fire went out of control by lighting thorn plants.
8. What is a stack? It is plant material or wood that has been carefully placed so that it is tall and doesn’t take much room. Thus, it has been stacked. It can be hay (as in a haystack); it can be wood; it can be anything that the person who stacked it desired to keep.
9. What is an arising? This can refer to a growing crop that has arisen from the soil; this could be a melon hill; it could be anything that is coming up from the ground and is desirable to the person who has that land.
10. If a stack, an arising or a field is eaten, what has happened? The fire has done the eating! In Hebrew, fire eats, which is to say that fire consumes.
11. Suppose that the one who starts the fire burns up another man’s field, and the one who starts the fire has a crop of the same value as the crop of his neighbour that he accidentally burned. What is the justice, according to the Torah? The justice is that the entire crop of the one who started the fire will belong to the neighbour whose crop was burned! Since that might mean that the man who started the fire and his family won’t have food for next year, he and his family might need to become a slave to the man whose crop was burned. (It pays to be very careful.)
III. Safeguarding Valuables (verses 6-7)
When a man will give silver or utensils unto his neighbour to guard, and what he entrusted to his neighbour is stolen from the house of the man safeguarding it, if the thief will be found, the thief must make peace by giving twice the value.
If the one who was entrusted to keep the goods isn’t found, the husband of the house (the man entrusted to guard the goods) will approach unto the Elohim. He must affirm that he did not send his hand (participate in the theft), taking advantage of the errand of his neighbour.
1. Who will make peace twice? The thief will make peace twice! He will return the item, and then he will give items that are worth in total twice the value of the items he stole.
2. Some religions and cultures cut off hands for theft. Why is the Torah so lenient, and why are those cultures so harsh? Which is better? The Torah appears to be lenient; the reason for the theft is never mentioned or considered. Some steal in order to eat. Now, the Torah always commands that the corners of fields must be left to the poor, the sojourner, the widow, the orphan, etc. Also, all gleanings (all food items left over after harvest) must be left to them. Yet, there are times when no food crop is ripe in the fields. Some Israelis would rather steal than become slaves to their neighbours. Thus, the lenience of the sentence isn’t so lenient, but it also isn’t very harsh.
Some steal because they covet what another has; the lenience of the sentence doesn’t take into consideration the loss of trust that the community has for such a thief, and it doesn’t take into consideration what the judges at the gates of the city might do if the thief tries this more than once. (They can beat the man or woman for bringing fear into the community, and they can order the man or woman to be enslaved if he/she cannot pay.)
Now, other religions and cultures that do not stick to what the Torah teaches include some that cut off hands for theft. This harsh sentence is due to several factors:
- Anger over thefts
- Contempt for human life
- Contempt for the Gods in whom image the person is made
- A desire to bring terror to others to stop them from stealing
- Contempt for the poor (since the wealthy either wouldn’t steal, or could easily bribe their way out of such a sentence)
- An unwillingness to be responsible for poor neighbours, and a desire to just have them… go away
- Contempt for the Torah of Yehovah
Each of these reasons for such a harsh sentence finds fault with Yehovah, the Gods of Israel.
The better sentence is the Torah’s sentence, since it permits a would-be thief to become a true friend of the victim (if both of their characters permit). The thief, say, becomes a slave of the person from whom he attempted to steal. During that time of slavery, the thief might truly gain a love for the slavemaster, and the thief might turn from theft to become a truly productive and gracious member of Israeli society. Now, had his hand instead been cut off, he likely would have become very bitter against the one from whom he was trying to steal, and his ability to function in society would have been greatly reduced. It is better to potentially make a true friend than to take vengeance, and even worse, to take vengeance that is far harsher than what is right in the eyes of the True and Living Gods.
3. Who is this husband of the house? He is the owner of the house where the valuables were being guarded when they were stolen.
4. Suppose that the thief isn’t found. The text states that the husband of the house must approach unto the Elohim. Where will he go to do that, and who are the Elohim? The Elohim are the Gods—that is, the Gods of Avraham, Isaac and Israel. Approaching unto Him, then, will involve coming to the altar of Yehovah that is in front of the Tent of Appointment (a special tent in which all items and all actions explain things to come). This tent is described this way:
Hebrews 9:1 Indeed, the first Tent therefore also had ordinances of service and a worldly sanctuary. 2For a Tent was prepared: the first in which are both the Menorah and the Table and the Matzah of the faces that is called holy. 3And after the second veil is a Tent that is called holy of holies 4having a gold censer, and the ark of the Covenant having been covered round in every part with gold, in which is a gold pot having the manna, and the rod of Aharon that sprouted, and the tables of the Covenant. 5And above it are cherabim of glory overshadowing the lid…
This is where the High Priest (and other priests) function. Yehovah’s faces are from inside that chamber called holy of holies where that box called the Ark is located. Thus, approaching this Tent is approaching unto the Elohim!
5. What is the man’s purpose for approaching unto the Elohim? The text continues, “if he did not send his hand via the errand of his neighbour!” Thus, this man must vow before the Elohim that he didn’t send his own hand by some means to obtain what his neighbour entrusted to him!
The expression, “if he did not send,” indicates the need for this vow. Now, if the man vows that he didn’t, and he actually did, he has not only stolen, but he has lied using a vow! The Elohim will go after him for that violation so that all Israel will fear!
IV. Speeches of Transgression (verse 8)
In every case where a transgression has occurred, folks will testify. Every speech that is part of that testimony must come unto the Elohim (the Gods) whether the testimony refers to a transgression involving an ox, ass, lamb, a form-fitting garment, or anything living of value that dies (perishes). Elohim will indicate the guilty person; that person must make peace twice to his neighbour.
1. What is a speech of transgression? It is what a person says to either accuse another of transgression or to claim one’s own innocence after having been accused of a transgression.
2. What is a form-fitting garment, and why is that listed? It is a garment that is made to perfectly fit a person. Thus, it is a very valuable garment. Making such a garment took so many hours of work, that it would be worth thousands of dollars if one were made that way today. (All thread had to be extracted from wool or from plants, and spun by hand; the thread had to be woven into fabrique by hand; the fabrique had to be dyed by hand; the fabrique then had to be cut by hand; it then had to be sewn to other cut fabrique by hand; it then had to be tailored by hand. Just making the thread for the fabrique would have taken weeks.)
3. What does “concerning every perishing” mean? This refers to an argument over why an animal died, and whose fault it was.
4. What does “He is this” mean? It is a short way to express that one person is claiming that this is the way something occurred. It could be the person accusing the other of negligence or wrongdoing, or it could be the person stating that he is innocent, and the other person is the negligent or wrongdoing party. Both are claiming to know facts: “He is this!”
5. How can their speeches come unto the Elohim? The Elohim, the Gods of Israel, will hear these speeches; He will know which speech is right (if either is right), or what the truth is. Now, those involved in this argument must come unto the Tent of Appointment in order to give their perspectives and claims before the Elohim.
6. What does “Whoever Elohim will ‘culpabilize’” mean? This means whoever Elohim will find guilty. Culpability means guilt or responsibility for whatever took place.
7. How will Elohim point out who is culpable? This is one of the purposes of a priest! He is an intercessor (one who stands between, since inter- means between, and –cessor means to stand) between a god and a human. The priests of Yehovah are intercessors between Yehovah and the Israelis (and others who come to Yehovah’s priests). Thus, a priest or several priests will hear all the sides of an argument, and Elohim will give them exactly the right justices. (Now, if the priests are corrupt, they might decide to ignore the speeches of the Elohim, but Elohim will later go after those wicked priests.)
8. Will the decisions made always be according to justice if these procedures are followed? They will if they are made before the Tent of Appointment, if the priests are not corrupt, and if Elohim is still there with them. (He later departed from Israel because the Israelis refused to do right; He has promised to return to Israel when all the Israelis are ready to do right.)
V. Responsibility When Guarding Animals (verses 9-12)
When a man will give to his neighbour an ass, ox, lamb, or any beast to guard, if the animal will die or will be broken or captured by someone else, if there is no seer—that is, no witness to what occurred, both the guard must vow to the owner that he didn’t send his hand into an errand of his neighbour—that he didn’t participate in the harm, destruction or loss.
The husbands (the owner) will take the dead or harmed animal (if it is still there), and he will take the vow. The guard will not make peace; he pays nothing.
If on investigation it is found that the guard had stolen from his neighbour, he will make peace with the owner.
If the animal is found torn, the guard will bring the animal to the owner; the guard will not make peace; he will pay nothing.
1. Why must they both vow to each other? If either one is guilty of the harm or loss, a vow will bring Yehovah into the justice. Now, not just the death or harm of an animal is involved, but also a vow to Yehovah! This raises the seriousness of any crime to a much greater level. Even if one of the two hired someone else to cause the harm or death, the vow will bring Yehovah into the picture, and Yehovah will know and identify the wrongdoer!
2. Why wouldn’t a person who was taking care of his neighbour’s animals just be up front with what took place if one of the animals died or was harmed? He probably would be up front about it if he had nothing to do with it. On the other hand, if the one taking care of his neighbour’s animals hurt one of the animals, say, in a fit of rage over some other issue, he might try to claim that it wasn’t his fault, when it truly was his fault!
Suppose that the neighbour who owned the animals intentionally entrusted them to his neighbour whom he hated, and later came and killed several of them in order to produce trouble for his neighbour. His vow before Yehovah would probably be that he had nothing to do with it, and it was his neighbour’s fault for not watching. Yet, Yehovah will both know the truth and will reveal the truth of what took place.
3. Again, why is husbands (plural) used instead of husband when the text assumes just one by having a singular verb? The person who is the husbands of the animal or animals takes care of them in all ways, is responsible for them in all ways, and can use them in every permissible way.
He/She is the husband who
- takes the animals to pasture;
- helps the animals with birthing if needed;
- finds help for diseases and wounds;
- shears the animals if shearing is appropriate;
- milks the animals (or acquires others who will milk the animals);
- keeps the animals within the confines of the pasture (so that the animals don’t go into someone else’s field).
4. Why does Yehovah hold no guilt for the person who was guarding his neighbour’s animals, during which time the animals were harmed or died? If Yehovah had penalized neighbours for deaths or injuries over which the neighbours had no control, this would cause neighbours to refuse to guard their neighbours’ animals! Yehovah instead desires neighbours to care for each other and to be willing to serve each other!
5. Verse 10 states, “and his husbands shall take.” What shall they take? They shall take the wounded or dead animal(s). Even dead, the animals belong to the owner; he/she must take the animals.
6. Won’t this leave bad feelings between the neighbours? If the neighbours believe the vows made, since Yehovah will be judging the vows, there should be no bad feelings. If, on the other hand, the owner doesn’t believe the vow, and also doesn’t believe that Yehovah truly ruled the way he did (or just doesn’t believe in Yehovah), I have confidence that bad feelings will be present!
7. If he doesn’t make peace, does that mean that the neighbours will remain in a state of anger (like war) with each other? If they desire to do that, they will. If they fear Yehovah, they won’t. Making peace has everything to do with restitution—that is, paying for what was damaged or lost. In this case, no payment will be made as long as neither one did evil toward the other.
8. Explain the circumstance behind “And if, stealing, he will steal from with him”: The neighbour who is guarding the animals of his neighbour decides to steal some of the animals from those he is guarding; for example, he may take some of his animals, and mix them into his own animals, claiming that they are his own and claiming that his neighbour’s animals were captured (rustled). Once this is brought to light, the neighbour who did this must return the animal(s), and must make peace (I propose that two more animals of the same value, or a monetary sum equal to two animals, must be given).
9. The next statement reads, “And if, tearing, he shall be torn, he will bring him unto the torn-[one].” Explain this circumstance; what is occurring? One of the animals that the neighbour is guarding has been torn open by either an animal or a human; the torn animal may be alive, or may be dead. The guarding neighbour must bring the owner to the animal.
VI. Borrower’s Responsibility (verses 13-14)
When a man will ask to use something from his neighbour, and what he is using from his neighbour becomes broken or dead while he is using it, if the husbands (the owner or the responsible party over the item, not referring to the borrower) are not present when this occurs, the man who asked to use the item or animal must make peace.
If the husbands (the owner or the person who is normally responsible for the animal or item) is with the one who desires to use it, no peace will be made.
If instead of being borrowed the animal or object is hired (that is, rented), and is broken or dead in the process of being used, the price of the hire is all that will be paid; that was the risk in hiring the animal or object out.
1. What is the man asking from his neighbour? He is asking to use something; it is an animal, in this case.
2. How did the animal become broken or dead? The text doesn’t give this information, and this information isn’t necessary for justice to be done.
3. What does “his husbands are not with him” mean? The owner who loaned the animal wasn’t present with the animal died or became broken.
4. Why doesn’t the borrower have to make peace if the husbands are with the animal? The owner is responsible for his own animal as long as he is present! As soon as he has departed and is no longer in the area of the animal, the borrower is totally responsible!
5. Suppose that the owner is walking away from the loaned animal, and goes behind a barn. Suppose that the animal drops dead at that moment; must the borrower make peace? Yes!
6. Explain “If a hire, he came via his hire”: If the animal isn’t borrowed, but is hired (which is like being rented), and damage occurs, the hire agreement price is all that the one who hired the animal must pay. The hire includes the possibility of damage occurring without the one doing the hiring being at fault. (If this isn’t agreeable, no one must hire out an animal to another person! That is strictly voluntary, and a way to earn money.)
VII. Suckering a Ripe Woman to Have Sex (verses 15-16)
When a man will ‘sucker’ (fool) a ripe woman (that is, she is old enough to get pregnant without danger), and the woman isn’t betrothed, and the man will lie with her (have sexual intercourse with her), the man must endow her to himself as his woman (his wife).
Now, if the woman’s father refuses to give her to him when he offers the dowry (the payment that is a bride price), the man who ‘suckered’ the woman must weigh out the amount in silver that is a normal dowry for ripe women, and must give that amount to the woman’s father; he gets nothing else from this deal.
1. What is a ripe woman? This is a woman who is physically mature enough to have children without extraordinary danger. The age of ripeness varies from race to race and person to person.
2. If he suckers her, what is he doing in this text? He is tricking her into having sexual intercourse.
3. What is betrothed? It is exactly the same as being married, except that the two have not yet come together to participate in sexual intercourse. In order to get out of a betrothal, a divorce must occur.
4. What does “he will lie with her” mean? This means that he will have sexual intercourse with her.
5. What does endow mean? It means to agree to marry and to pay the bride price. This price can be very expensive. In today’s money, for example, it might be, say, $25,000, or more or less, depending on status in society and many other factors.
The bride price is because when a family loses a daughter by her getting married, that family now has one less person to work to help with all the chores. Therefore, the bride price helps the family to find someone else to take the daughter’s place as a worker.
6. What does “he will endow her to him to a woman” mean? This means that he will pay for her (the bride price) and will make her his woman—that is, his wife. Thus, he made a commitment once he suckered her into having sex with him.
7. What occurs if she was already betrothed or if he was betrothed when he did this to a woman to whom he isn’t betrothed? If she was already betrothed, and he suckered her into sex, they have committed adultery. Thus, the teachings regarding adultery will be used.
If, on the other hand, he was betrothed, and she didn’t know it, and he suckered her into having sex with him, and it is established that she didn’t know, though this also adultery, the judges at the city gates will consider; I propose that they will put the man to death, and will spare the woman.
8. What did he do to ‘sucker’ her—that is, to fool her into having sex? One way would be to take advantage of her ignorance regarding sexual matters. While the Israelis were and are very open regarding sexual things, and intentionally so, so that most won’t be fooled, it is possible that an Israeli girl might not have understood how sexual intercourse works, and a man might intentionally give her the wrong impression.
Another case, however, might be when she knows about sexual matters, and the man promises her that he will marry her to himself and take care of her, when truly he has no intention.
9. Suppose that the woman ‘suckers’ the man into sexual intercourse; what would be the ruling on this? The ruling would be exactly the same with the man being the responsible party to betroth the woman to himself. The Torah (Teaching) of Yehovah is designed such that the Israelis are all responsible to teach each other its commands. Thus, a young man must learn the Torah in order to stay alive!
10. Why would her father refuse to give her to him? She is valuable to the family, and her father already knows that the man will not treat his daughter with respect. The father has good reason in his own mind to refuse to give her to him. (If she truly loves this man who suckered her, and if he truly loves her, he can now demonstrate to her family that his character will be better from now, on.)
11. Must he pay in silver? Yes! Silver is a type in the Bible, and pictures redemption. He, the man who ‘suckered’ the woman, must redeem her.
12. What is a dowry? It is the bride price that a man or his family gives to the family of the woman whom the man is taking for his own.
13. What is the dowry of the ripe women? It is the normal amount that an Israeli man gives to acquire a woman in Israel when she is just ripe. (This isn’t the same as a dowry for, say, a widow, since I don’t think that a widow marrying required a dowry.)
14. What will occur if the man and his family cannot afford the dowry? The man becomes the slave of the father or mother of the woman he ‘suckered.’ (It is totally permissible to beat slaves.)
15. Suppose that the father of the woman determines that this man will have his daughter has a wife, but the daughter doesn’t desire to have this man as her husband; what does the Torah teach regarding this? If the father insists, the man obtains the woman as his wife. Yet, most fathers will consider the desires of their daughters. If this father will do as the daughter desires, and will therefore take the dowry amount, but not give the daughter, he can then later obtain another dowry sum for her from another man! Therefore, the father has good incentive to consider the wishes of his daughter.
16. Suppose that the woman becomes pregnant from this ‘suckering,’ and suppose that the father refused to give his daughter to him; who is responsible to rear the child? The daughter and her father (and her mother, also) will rear the child.
17. Suppose that the woman’s father is dead, and she is living with her mother; does her mother’s say in these matters work the same as the father’s say? The Torah shows types—that is, pictures of things to come. Every detail as it is written will be one of those types. That doesn’t mean that the Israelis cannot decide matters that are not directly described; they can, and they must. Thus, we propose that the mother can make the decision if the father is dead or incapacitated. (The father and the mother are one.)
VIII. Dead Witch (verse 17)
Under no circumstance is a witch to be permitted to stay alive in Israel.
1. What is a witch? She is one who uses and makes drugs and potions, she casts spells, and she contacts demons who act as family spirits (familiar spirits) in order to either manipulate others or to help manipulate others and have power over them. She uses pain, pleasure, fear, and other senses to do this manipulation.
2. What is the male version of a witch? He is called a warlock.
3. If an Israeli becomes a warlock, must he also die? The Israelis must put a warlock to death just like a witch.
4. Why is Yehovah so against witches? Witches teach others to manipulate for selfish and destructive purposes. Witches teach idolatry by giving the impression that demons are gods and are good. Witches employ drugs that cause victims of the drugs to do what they would not otherwise do, and witches supply drugs to others who will use the potions to harm others and to lower their resistance to sin!
5. Are all witches ugly hags? Many witches are truly pretty and can be very nice. Yehovah has commanded against what they do when they are practicing their witchcraft.
6. Should we kill witches today? Yehovah gave this Teaching to Israel. He did not command this teaching to any other group. Yehovah will judge those who are outside of Biblical faith, and those who believe the Bible have no business judging others regarding their religions and idolatries. Thus, a person who fears Yehovah today will be kind to witches, and will not participate in witchcraft.
IX. Lethal Bestiality (verse 18)
Every person in Israel who has sex with an animal must be put to death.
1. What is a bedder with a beast? It is a person who has sex with animals. It has nothing to do with sleeping with an animal in one’s bed.
2. Why must such a person be put to death? Yehovah sees this as a terrible perversion and a great evil. (It also can bring some of the most violent diseases into human populations.)
3. Should we put such persons to death today? Yehovah gave this command to Israel, and not to any other race. God will judge those outside of the race of Israel. If they of the other races desire to make laws regarding such practices, they can do so.
X. Devoted Idolater (verse 19)
Anyone who sacrifices to gods (not referring to Yehovah) will be devoted to destruction as the property of the false gods. That person will be put to death and will not be permitted to live.
Sacrificing to Yehovah, and to Him alone, is permissible.
1. What does kherem—that is, devoted to destruction mean? The Arabic word harem comes directly from this word. When it refers to an object, if the object isn’t an animal, it becomes the property of Yehovah and can never be the property of a human. If it is Yehovah’s property, it can be kept as such, or destroyed as such.
If it refers to an animal, the animal must be slaughtered.
If it refers to a human, the human must be slaughtered! (In the Arabic custom, the women who belong to a man’s harem are for the use of the man. If they try to leave the harem in order to be a regular citizen or to leave the land, or if they are unfaithful, they are put to death if caught. This is not part of the Biblical practices.)
The idea of being devoted—completely put to one particular use and purpose—shows how strong this is, since a person is devoted to destruction, and cannot be redeemed.
2. The text states, “A sacrificer to elohim shall be kherem.” Why would a person who sacrifices to elohim be killed? The word elohim means gods. I have always capitalized elohim (Elohim) when the text is referring to Yehovah. I don’t capitalize it when it refers to gods other than Yehovah. In this text, an Israeli is a sacrificer to other gods that are not Yehovah. That Israeli person must be killed.
3. Suppose that a sojourner from some other race comes to stay a while in Israel, and is normally a sacrificer to other gods besides Yehovah; must the Israelis kill that person? These commands only have to do with Israelis, and not with sojourners from among the other races. Now, a sojourner in the land of Israel must refrain from doing sacrifices to other gods while in Israel. The person certainly can continue to believe in his/her own gods, but sacrificing to them while in Israel mustn’t be done. (If the person truly wants to sacrifice to his/her god(s), he/she can simply go outside of the borders of Israel, and do the sacrifice there; then he/she can return back into the borders of Israel.) If a sojourner insists upon doing a sacrifice to false gods within the borders of Israel, that sojourner must also be put to death. The Israelis must warn sojourners about these things in order to protect them from violating. Sojourners must be protected, and therefore they must be warned so that they won’t violate while in the Land of Israel.
4. To whom are the Israelis permitted to do sacrifices? They are permitted to do sacrifices to Yehovah, and to Him alone.
XI. Cheating and Oppressing a Sojourner (verse 20)
Yehovah commanded Israel to not cheat a sojourner. Israel also must not oppress a sojourner. The reason is given: the Israelis were sojourners in the land of Egypt!
1. Why would an Israeli desire to cheat a sojourner? The Israelis (with few exceptions) were not fearers of Yehovah, and did not hold faith in Him. That is one reason why He gave them the Torah (Teaching). Thus, the Israelis will desire to sin at various times in various ways. Cheating a sojourner can be easily accomplished since the sojourner doesn’t know how much things are worth in this land and in this culture of Israel. A sojourner doesn’t have relatives who can come and help against a powerful Israeli. The sojourner is helpless in so many ways. Therefore, an Israeli who is evil might take advantage of the sojourner.
Of course, there are other Israelis who might be willing to stand up for the sojourner, but Yehovah isn’t assuming this; His command is against cheating a sojourner, period. (A sojourner is a person from another land who is on a journey to another land, and whose journey is continuing. A sojourner can remain in a foreign land for years, and still be a sojourner.)
2. What does oppress mean? It means to mistreat, to put into a difficult situation without cause, to hassle, to threaten, to berate, to treat meanly, etc.
3. What is wrong with oppressing a sojourner? Yehovah has special consideration for sojourners! He takes mistreating sojourners very personally. The Israelis were sojourners in the land of Egypt! Yehovah therefore struck hard against the land of Egypt in order to open the way for the Israelis to leave, and to bring the Egyptians to a willingness to send them on their way!
Yehovah also sees the future. Sojourners will often be His property during the Tribulation. He will see how others treat His property, and He will respond!
4. The Israelis were sojourners how long in the land of Egypt? They were sojourners 430 years!
5. What famous command fits this text?
Luke 6:31 As ye would that men should do to you, do ye also to them likewise.
This is a little different from the so-called ‘Golden Rule’: Do unto others as you would have them do unto you. The Luke text is a little stronger.
XII. Humiliating a Widow and an Orphan (verses 21-23)
The Israelis must not humiliate any widow, and they must not humiliate any orphan. If Israel humiliates him, screaming, he will scream unto Yehovah, and Yehovah will hearken to his scream! Yehovah’s nose will then heat, and He will kill the Israelis via sword! The women of the Israelis will become widows, and the children of the Israelis will become orphans!
1. What is the difference between being humble and being humiliated? Being humble is voluntary; being humiliated is being forced. I propose that the word humble has this definition: knowing where one stands in terms of rank and responsibility, and living that way. Now, if a person doesn’t know his/her rank and responsibilities toward others, and therefore doesn’t live according to the person’s true rank and real responsibilities, the person isn’t humble. Instead, the person is either arrogant (‘stuck up’) or irresponsible, and will mistreat others. The Bible describes this as pride; pride is never good in the Bible.
Humiliation, then, is being forced into a rank that isn’t true (usually a lower rank, but sometimes a higher rank to cause failure), and being given responsibilities (or being held responsible for things that the person didn’t do) that don’t belong to the person and don’t fit the person.
The Hebrew language doesn’t have separate words for humility and humiliation. The difference is whether it is voluntary or forced.
2. Why would Israelis humiliate a widow? If they take advantage of her because of her inability to defend herself, her property, her standing in Israeli society, her weakness, etc., they are humiliating her. Some Israelis who don’t fear Yehovah might do this openly, but others might take steps that involve a widow and that humiliate her without realizing what they are doing. Yehovah gives this command and warning, therefore, so that Israelis who fear Him will consider before they do anything that involves a widow.
The land that belongs to a widow will be considered valuable; others around the widow might want to take her lands. (Some of the Israelis who fear Yehovah will instead help the widow so that she can keep her lands and stay on them.)
3. Why would Israelis humiliate an orphan? Those who don’t fear Yehovah might view an orphan as truly an unimportant person who is also helpless, and might therefore push the orphan out of the way of their plans or take what belongs to the orphan, figuring that the orphan won’t find help. Others might not know that they are humiliating the orphan, but Yehovah will still see it that way. Therefore, the Israelis must be very cautious to make sure that they aren’t humiliating an orphan by the decisions that they make.
4. Who is him in, “thou wilt humiliate him”? Him refers to the widow or the orphan! Though it is masculine, the widow, who is a woman, is being viewed as an offspring of Adam—that is, generically.
5. What will this widow or orphan do if she/he is humiliated? She/He will scream unto Yehovah! (This is true even if this person doesn’t directly pray to Yehovah!)
6. How will Yehovah respond to this scream? Yehovah will hearken! He will become furious! He will then send a sword against the Israelis (the entire group!) so that their women will be widows and their children will be orphans!
7. Why will Yehovah react so strongly, that He will kill many for the sake of a few mistreated individuals? Is this justice? It is! It is Yehovah’s justice! He holds all Israelis responsible for what one or two individuals do! Therefore, the Israelis will show wisdom if they stop their fellow Israelis from such behaviours! They must consider such Israelis as bringing a threat of destruction on the whole group!
8. Is making Israeli women widows when those women did nothing wrong, and making Israeli children orphans when those children did nothing wrong, truly justice? It truly is justice! The women did nothing wrong, but they also didn’t stand up for the widows and orphans who were being mistreated when they heard about them! (They will hear about them. If they can’t hear about them because of the evil leaders of society keeping the news of them from becoming public, it is time for Yehovah to take Israel apart and give Israel into the hands of enemies!)
XIII. Lending to the Poor (verses 24-26)
‘Bringing silver near’ to a humble one of Yehovah’s people (the People of Israel) is akin to lending. It is making silver available. The Israelis must not be to this humble one as a creditor—that is, as one who is lending, and who therefore pressures this person to pay the amount owed. The text continues to command that the Israelis must not put ‘a bite’ upon him; that bite will include charging interest.
Israel is permitted to take collateral—that is, to take something of value in the process of lending. Taking this collateral item is called binding. If the form of the binding is a fitted garment, it must be returned to the humble one ‘unto the coming of the sun’—that is, by sunset. The reason is given: this garment is the humble person’s being’s blanket covering; it belongs only to the person’s being. It is the person’s garment to the person’s skin. Yehovah asks, “Via what will he bed?”—that is, in what will he sleep? If Israel does take this humble person’s fitted garment, and doesn’t return it at sunset, this person will scream unto Yehovah, and Yehovah will hearken! Why? Yehovah favours!
1. What does bring silver near mean in this text? It means to make it available. We call that lending. However, it is a particular kind of lending; not a business lending. It is lending to a person who is very poor, and who greatly needs this silver. These texts have nothing to do with business lending, which is investing money into the business of another in order to earn a return on the business. Do not confuse these two.
2. Why does the text specify, “If thou wilt bring-near silver with my people”? This command only has to do with the people of Israel. It is not a command regarding lending to those of other races who have become poor. Israel isn’t responsible for folks of other races in their own countries and lands. The Israelis must deal properly with Israelis.
3. The text states, “with the humble one with thee.” What does being humble have to do with a text on lending? This humble person is very low in rank or has become very low in rank because of no silver. This person knows his/her rank because of this.
4. What does “thou shalt not be to him as a creditor” mean? This means that this Israeli (who is thou in, “If thou will bring-near silver with my people…”) must not treat the Israeli to whom he loaned the silver as if that Israeli owes him interest on the loan.
A creditor is a person who lends money or goods in order to make more money from the interest on the loan.
The interest is a certain amount of money charged or gained from lending the money in the first place. For example, I might lend you, say, $50 if you agree to pay me $55 back! The interest is $5.
No Israeli is permitted to behave as a creditor toward a humble Israeli in need of the silver. Therefore, no interest can be charged or taken.
5. What is a bite in, “Ye shall not put upon him a bite”? A bite is a piece of the earnings from the loan. It is called a bite because it is like what a loan shark does: he lends and then charges high interest with strong threats if the loan isn’t repaid with the high interest. The term loan shark is just like this Hebrew term, bite!
6. Verse 24 started out with thou and thee—both being singular. It then switched to ye, which is plural. Why did Yehovah change it from singular to plural? Verse 24 starts with an individual lending to another Israeli. When it switches to ye, it shows that all of the Israelis are now responsible for what this one Israeli does! (The text then switches back to the individual.)
7. What is this binding mentioned in verse 25? In English, this is called collateral. Collateral is some form of the borrower’s property that the person borrowing promises or temporarily gives to the lender so that the lender has something of value while the borrower has the loan. In the case of this text, the valuable item is a fitted garment; that would be worth quite a bit of silver. The lender will take and hold that fitted garment until the borrower pays back the loan.
Binding the fitted garment is taking and holding it until the loan is repaid.
8. Verse 25 continues, “unto the coming [setting] of the sun thou shalt return him to him.” What does this mean? The “coming of the sun” is sunset. (It appears to come down to the land.) Thus, as the sun is setting, the lender must return the fitted garment to the borrower for each night! The garment is a blanket cover! Yehovah does not permit an Israeli to keep the only blanket cover of another Israeli overnight! When the morning comes, the lender can then again take and hold the fitted garment—that is, until the next sunset!
9. Who is her in, “For He is her blanket-covering, hers alone”? This refers to the person’s being, which is always feminine (regardless of the gender of the person).
10. What does “For He is her blanket-covering, hers alone” mean? This means that the fitted garment is the blanket covering for only that person’s being; it wasn’t made for anyone else, but was dedicated to that one person’s being.
11. Explain, “He is his garment to his skin”: He, the fitted garment, is his, the man’s, garment to his, the man’s, skin—what he needs in order to not be exposed to the weather.
12. Who is asking the question, “Via what will he bed?” Yehovah is asking the question. Since Yehovah is asking it, it is a question that already has an obvious answer: He won’t have what he needs in which to sleep! That garment also acts as his pajamas!
13. Why would a person scream unto Yehovah if his or her fitted garment were being held by the lender? Whether the temperature is cold, and the person who borrowed the silver didn’t have enough cover, or whether the temperature is warm, and the garment helped keep insects off—there could be many reasons. While the lender was doing a favour for the borrower, still, mistreating the borrower by holding his/her fitted garment during the night is a great offense to Yehovah.
14. What will Yehovah do when He hearkens? Yehovah will cause the Israelis to be without proper clothing in the very same way! This means that they will necessarily either be prisoners or will be on the run, since they cannot obtain proper clothing.
15. Yehovah said these things to the Israelis about their treatment of other Israelis. Suppose that an Israeli lends to a sojourner who has become poor, and holds a fitted garment overnight from the sojourner; suppose the sojourner screams unto Yehovah the Gods of Israel. Will Yehovah hearken, or will He ignore the shouts of the sojourner?
Leviticus 19:33 And if a sojourner sojourns with thee in your land, ye shall not vex him. 34And the sojourner who dwells with you shall be unto you as one born among you! And thou shalt love him as thyself! For ye were sojourners in the land of Egypt! I am Yehovah your Gods!
Thus, Yehovah will indeed hearken!
16. Some folks in some other cultures greatly mistreat sojourners. What does Yehovah do in other cultures and races regarding sojourners? Yehovah burned every citizen to death in four cities (Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah and Zeboim) because of what they did to sojourners! That included little children, babies, animals, the elderly—He burned them all to death. Yehovah sees. He will take down any culture that mistreats sojourners, orphans, widows, etc.
XIV. Lightly Esteeming Elohim (verse 27)
Israel must not lightly esteem (that is, consider of little value) Elohim.
1. What does lightly esteem mean? It means to consider something of little worth, value, rank, importance, etc.
2. How does a person behave who lightly esteems Elohim? That person lives, speaks and reacts as if Elohim isn’t important, isn’t worth fearing, doesn’t have to be obeyed, and so on. Such a person will treat others made in Elohim’s image in the same wrong ways! That person will sin without considering the consequences, and will teach others to do the same.
3. Since the word Elohim is the same word used in verse 19, and since the Hebrew language doesn’t have capitalization (which means that a reader in Hebrew won’t see any difference), how can the reader tell that this refers to the Gods of Israel instead of the false gods of the races? This sentence is connected to the next sentence by and, showing that they are connected: “Thou shalt not lightly-esteem Elohim. And thou shalt not curse the carrier in thy people!” This section isn’t speaking about the false gods, but about the True Gods and the leader that the True Gods has appointed (that leader being called a carrier).
A reader must figure out many things like this: by looking around the text. All the texts surrounding a text that are connected with that text together are called the context (where the prefix con- means with; thus, context means with the text).
XV. Cursing the Carrier (verse 27)
The carrier is the leader. If Israel curses the carrier in Israel’s people, Yehovah will react!
1. What is a carrier? That is a person who carries the responsibilities of governing and leading a people.
2. Are there many carriers in this world (besides in Israel)? Yes, there are! There are carriers in all cultures! They are the leaders who govern, who lead, often who judge, who go to war, etc.
3. Who chooses the leaders in all cultures, races, lands, etc.? Since some come to power by violence, some by being elected, some by power, some by birth, and some by other means, who truly chooses the leaders? All leaders are brought to power by God:
Romans 13:1 Every being shall be subject to authorities above. For there is no authority except from God! And those who are authorities have been appointed by God 2so that he who sets himself against the authority resists the ordinance of God! And they who resist shall receive judgment to themselves. 3For, the rulers are not a terror to good works, but-rather to evil. Dost thou desire to not be afraid of the authority? Practice the good, and thou shalt have praise from him! 4For he is a slave of God for good to thee! And if thou art practicing evil, fear! For he wears the sword—not in vain! For he is a slave of God, an avenger for wrath to him who does evil! 5Therefore [it is] necessary to be subject—not only on account of wrath, but also on account of conscience! 6For ye pay tribute also on this account! For they are ministers of God attending continually on this same thing! 7Therefore render to all their dues—to whom tribute: tribute; to whom custom: custom; to whom fear: fear; to whom honour: honour. 8Owe ye nothing!—to no one!—unless to love one another. For he who loves the other has fulfilled Torah!
Thus, even very wicked leaders are still brought to power by God; He has given them opportunity to do good and to practice what is right, bringing justice. Even if the wicked leaders came to power by committing murder, Yehovah still has given those leaders opportunity to do right (though very few leaders of this world will do right, and will do it consistently). Yehovah determines all ranks in this world!
4. What is wrong with cursing the carrier in the people of Israel if the cursing is done in private where no one hears and where no harm is done? Since Yehovah appointed the carrier, cursing him is cursing what Yehovah has done! That shows a terrible disrespect toward Yehovah! Instead, one who fears Yehovah will do what is right (even if it is the opposite of what the carrier commands to do, since Yehovah is higher in rank than the carrier), and will show respect toward the carrier. That means that the person could be disobeying the carrier if the carrier’s commands are wrong in the eyes of Yehovah, while still showing respect to the carrier. This happened in the scroll of Daniel:
Daniel 3:14 Nebuchadnezzar spoke. And he said unto them, “Is it true, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego? Don’t ye serve my gods, and don’t ye worship the gold image that I have set up? 15Now if ye are ready: that at what time ye hear the sound of the cornet, flute, harp, sackbut, psaltery and dulcimer, and all kinds of music, ye shall fall down and worship the image that I have made, good! And if ye don’t worship, ye shall be cast the same hour into the midst of a burning fiery furnace. And who is that God that shall deliver you out of my hands?” 16Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego answered and said to the king, “Nebuchadnezzar, we are not careful to answer thee in this matter. 17If it is so, our God whom we serve is able to deliver us from the burning fiery furnace. And He will deliver us out of thine hand, king. 18And if not, be it known unto thee, king, that we will not serve thy gods, and we will not worship the gold image that thou hast set up.”
Since Yehovah sent and assigned the carrier, even cursing the carrier in one’s mind isn’t an appropriate response to wrong actions of the carrier in the people of Israel. (Cursing the carrier in any people is likewise not so wise.)
XVI. Giving Firstborn (verses 28-29)
Israel must not delay Israel’s fullness (Israel’s harvest) and Israel’s weeping (also referring to the dripping of juices that are produced by squeezing fruit, but consider the type!).
Israel must give a firstborn of Israel’s children to Yehovah. Israel must do the same thing to Israel’s ox, to Israel’s flock. The firstborn will be with his mother seven days. Israel must give him to Yehovah in the eighth day.
1. What is this fullness? It is the abundance of any crop in any year.
2. What does delaying the fullness involve? It involves putting off taking out the Biblically commanded portion and doing with it as Yehovah commanded. One of those portions is called the tithe; it is a tenth of any crop and a tenth of the increase of cattle, sheep, etc. The tithe (that is, the tenth) must be set aside right away, since delaying may involve forgetting and making excuses to not give it.
3. What is thy weeping? When grapes are squeezed, they produce a drop of liquid that is like a teardrop. When grapes produce very well, much wine can be produced. Squeezing the grapes to obtain the juice causes the squeezed grapes to ‘weep;’ once the wine is produced, a portion of that belongs to Yehovah. If Israelis delay to give this, they are doing wrong.
4. What do the fullness and the weeping typify? I propose that they typify two things in the Tribulation. When the Israelis see their brethren in distress, and they have an idea that they can rescue them, and the fullness of their compassion prods them to bear fruit (that is, to do good works that save lives), they must not delay to take action! Delay will mean that they won’t take action, and it will mean that those needing to be rescued can die. The weeping, I propose, typifies the reaction that the Israelis have as they see their brethren being destroyed during the Tribulation. If they delay their weeping, they might harden themselves so that they will only think of saving their own lives. If, instead, they weep, they will then be in position to take action, since grieving is often the first step to taking action in such cases. If they don’t weep, they won’t have consolation. If they do weep, they can then become very strong for their brethren.
5. The next statement, “Thou shalt give to me a firstborn of thy children,” uses a firstborn instead of the firstborn. Why is it worded this way, and how can the ‘thou’ do this? First, the command is to one identified as thou. This is singular. The wording is designed to point to all Israel as one unit; it could have been worded ye, referring to the Israelis. Thus, Israel must give to Yehovah a firstborn of Israel’s children. I propose that this points to Yeshua Who is a firstborn of Israel’s children.
Now, this command includes each Israeli giving a firstborn, and other commands go along with this. Yet, the picture it shows is as important as the command itself.
The way Yehovah commanded the Israelis to give Him the firstborn human child was not to sacrifice the child. Instead, the child had to be redeemed by an animal (which was only a type, and not a real replacement) being sacrificed in order to picture Yeshua who really was sacrificed. Yehovah commanded the following:
Numbers 3:12 “And I, behold, I have taken the Levites from among the children of Israel instead of all the firstborn who opens the matrix among the children of Israel! Therefore the Levites shall be mine 13Because all the firstborn are mine. For I sanctified unto me all the firstborn in Israel—both man and beast—on the day that I smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt! They shall be mine! I am Yehovah!”
Thus, the Levites serve Yehovah as His property as a replacement for all the firstborn of the Israelis being taken.
6. Why must Israel also give a firstborn of an ox and of a flock? Yehovah uses these animals as types to remind (or point out to) the Israelis of the importance of giving the firstborn to Yehovah, and of giving Yeshua to Yehovah.
7. Why must an ox or a goat or a sheep firstborn be with its mother seven days before being given to Yehovah? A small point is so that the animal mama won’t overly grieve, since she will have fed her young for seven days. I propose that taking the firstborn immediately on the first day can be harmful to the mother.
Yet, the seven days are a type. A week is a complete unit of time in the year. Giving the young on the eighth day is like circumcision being done on the eighth day. These lengths of time will be fulfilled during the Tribulation when Israel’s heart (as a group) will be circumcised on the eighth day. Israel as a whole will give Yeshua, the Lamb of God, to Yehovah (as if they were there at the time of Yeshua’s being sacrificed on the cross).
XVII. Owned (verse 30)
The Israelis shall be mortals (that is, alive in their bodies that can die—not referring to being in their bodies that cannot die) of the Holy One of Israel, belonging to Yehovah.
1. What does “And ye shall be mortals of Holy-[One] to me” mean? A mortal is a person capable of dying (and therefore not referring to a person who has already died). The Holy One, known also as the Holy One of Israel, refers to Yeshua—the One whom Yehovah sent to Israel to save Israel from sin and death, and to provide Salvation for all.
This text shows that the Israelis will belong to this Holy One of Israel Who will in turn belong to Yehovah! Thus, the Israelis will belong to Yehovah!
XVIII. Eating Torn Animals (verse 30)
If the Israelis find a torn animal in a field, they must not eat that animal. They must sling that animal to a dog!
1. What is a torn one? It is animal that has been killed by another animal.
2. What is wrong with eating the flesh of a torn animal in the field? The Israelis either don’t know how the animal died, or they do know, but in either case, the animal that killed the other animal could be rabid or diseased.
The blood of the animal wasn’t properly drained, but stayed inside of the animal.
3. What does eating flesh of a torn one typify? Since a torn one is a victim of an animal that is or is not identified, Yeshua was not a torn one. He was a sacrifice. Eating the flesh of a sacrifice is right when the sacrifice is right; that shows participation with what the sacrifice typifies. Even Yeshua spoke well of eating His flesh. (His flesh is like the fruit on a fruit tree; it is there to be eaten, and isn’t for the benefit of the tree itself. Picking the fruit doesn’t kill the tree.)
4. What does “in a field” tell the reader? It means that the tearing took place out where no one saw it occur.
5. Why must the Israelis sling this torn carcass specifically to a dog? A dog is a perfect type of an unclean animal, and therefore pictures an unclean person. The torn one, I propose, will picture a false god, and the dog an unclean idolater. If I am right, the dog eats of the false god. (It won’t hurt the dog.)