Thieves, Property Destruction and Loss, the Occult
Background and printed text: Exodus 22
Exodus 22:1 If he will find the thief in shoveling, and he struck him and he died, there are not bloods to him. 2If the sun rose upon him, bloods are to him! Making peace, he shall-make-peace! If there isn’t to him, and he shall be sold via his theft. 3If, being-found, thou wilt find the theft in his hand, from ox unto ass unto lamb of lives, he will make-peace twice.
4When a man will burn a field or a vineyard, and he will send her burner, and he will burn in another field, he will make-peace: he will make-good his field and he will make-good his vineyard! 5When a fire will exit, and her exit is thorns, and a stack or the arising or the field will be eaten, making-peace, he will make-peace—the kindler with the kindled!
6When a man will give silver or utensils unto his neighbour to guard, and he will be stolen from the house of the man, if the thief will be found, he shall make peace twice! 7If he will not find the thief [or, “If the thief will not be found”], and the husband of the house will approach unto the Elohim if he did not send his hand via the errand of his neighbour!
8Concerning every speech of transgression, concerning ox, concerning ass, concerning lamb, concerning form-fitting-garment, concerning every perishing that he will say that “He is this,” the speech of both of them will come unto the Elohim. Whoever Elohim will ‘culpabilize,’ he shall make-peace twice to his neighbour.
9When a man will give unto his neighbour an ass or ox or lamb and any beast to guard, and he will die or he will be broken or he will be captured, there is no seer, 10a vow of Yehovah shall be between both of them if he did not send his hand into an errand of his neighbour. And his husbands shall take [sing.]. And he will not make-peace. 11And if, stealing, he will steal from with him, he will make-peace to his husbands. 12And if, tearing, he shall be torn, he will bring him unto the torn-[one]. He will not make-peace.
13And when a man will ask from with his neighbour, and he will be broken or dead, his husbands are not with him, making-peace, he shall make-peace. 14If his husbands are with him, he shall not make-peace. If a hire, he came via his hire.
15And when a man will ‘sucker’ a ripe-[woman] who is not betrothed, and he will lie with her, endowing, he will endow her to him to a woman! 16If, refusing, her father will refuse to give her to him, he will weigh silver as a dowry of the ripe-[women].
17A witch shall not live.
18Every bedder with a beast—dying, he shall-be-caused-to-die.
19A sacrificer to elohim shall-be-kherem [devoted to destruction]—except not to Yehovah, Him alone.
20And thou shalt not cheat a sojourner. And thou shalt not oppress him! For ye were sojourners in the land of Egypt!
21Ye shall not humiliate any widow and orphan. 22If, humiliating, thou wilt humiliate him, but-rather, screaming, he will scream unto me! Hearkening, I will hearken-to his scream! 23And my nose will heat! And I will kill you via sword! And your women will be widows and your children orphans!
24If thou wilt bring-near silver with my people, with the humble-[one] with thee, thou shalt not be to him as a creditor! Ye shall not put upon him a bite! 25If, binding, thou wilt bind a fitted-garment of thy neighbour, unto the coming [setting] of the sun thou shalt return him to him. 26For He is her blanket-covering, hers alone. He is his garment to his skin. Via what will he bed? And he shall be, when he shall scream unto me, and I will hearken! For I am favorable!
27Thou shalt not lightly-esteem Elohim.
And thou shalt not curse the carrier in thy people!
28Thou shalt not delay thy fullness and thy weeping. Thou shalt give to me a firstborn of thy children. 29Established, thou shalt do to thine ox, to thy flock. Seven of days he will be with his mother. In the day the eighth thou shalt give him to me!
30And ye shall be mortals of Holy-[One] to me.
And ye shall not eat flesh of a torn-[one] in a field. Ye shall sling him to a dog!
I. A Shoveling Thief (verses 1-3)
If an owner or a responsible person finds a thief in the process of shoveling to dig into a location to steal valuables, and if that person struck the thief so that the thief died, the person who struck the thief is not guilty of bloods—that is, of murder.
Now, if the sun rose upon the thief, and the person struck the thief so that he died, bloods are to him—that is, he is guilty of murder or manslaughter!
If the thief is caught, the thief must make peace! If he has nothing valuable with which to make peace, he will be sold by virtue of his theft.
If an animal such as an ox, ass or lamb is found in his hand (that is, in his possession), he must make peace twice—twice the amount he stole.
1. Who finds this thief, and what are the circumstances under which he finds him?
2. Suppose that the thief isn’t shoveling, but instead is cutting wire or is breaking in by some other means; does that mean that this command cannot be applied?
3. What does “there are no bloods to him” mean?
4. Must the person try to kill the thief if it is very dark?
5. What does “If the sun rose upon him, bloods are to him” mean, and why is this?
6. The text states, “Making peace, he shall make peace!” Who must make peace, and how must he make peace?
7. The next statement is, “If there isn’t to him, and he shall be sold via his theft.” What does “If there isn’t to him” mean, and what must occur if this is the case?
8. What does “thou wilt find the theft in his hand” mean?
9. What kinds of stolen items are mentioned in this text?
10. If he makes peace twice, does this mean that the animal that he stole is one of the two animals that he must give to the owner?
11. If the animal that the thief stole is very valuable, how will this small ‘fine’ stop him from trying this again?
II. Burning a Field (verses 4-5)
When a man will burn a field or a vineyard (see questions to learn why), and he is the one who sent the field’s burner—that is, he started the fire, and the fire will burn in another field not belonging to the person, the fire starter must make peace. He must make-good the field he burned and/or the vineyard he burned.
When a fire will exit—that is, go out of bounds, and the exit is because of thorns, and a stack of hay or the arising (that which is growing) or a field will be eaten by the fire, the one who started the fire must make peace. The kindler of the fire must make good on what was kindled!
1. Why would anyone desire to burn his own field or vineyard?
2. What does “and he will send her burner” mean?
3. The next part states, “and he will burn in another field.” Was this intentional?
4. Why does he have to make peace if the land owner next door was also going to burn his own field?
5. What if the fire was just accidental—that is, the man who started it took every precaution so that it wouldn’t go into another man’s field, but the winds picked up at the last moments, and took the fire into the next field?
6. Suppose that a man burns ten other fields, and he cannot pay for them; what will occur?
7. What does “When a fire will exit, and her exit is thorns” mean?
8. What is a stack?
9. What is an arising?
10. If a stack, an arising or a field is eaten, what has happened?
11. Suppose that the one who starts the fire burns up another man’s field, and the one who starts the fire has a crop of the same value as the crop of his neighbour that he accidentally burned. What is the justice, according to the Torah?
III. Safeguarding Valuables (verses 6-7)
When a man will give silver or utensils unto his neighbour to guard, and what he entrusted to his neighbour is stolen from the house of the man safeguarding it, if the thief will be found, the thief must make peace by giving twice the value.
If the one who was entrusted to keep the goods isn’t found, the husband of the house (the man entrusted to guard the goods) will approach unto the Elohim. He must affirm that he did not send his hand (participate in the theft), taking advantage of the errand of his neighbour.
1. Who will make peace twice?
2. Some religions and cultures cut off hands for theft. Why is the Torah so lenient, and why are those cultures so harsh? Which is better?
3. Who is this husband of the house?
4. Suppose that the thief isn’t found. The text states that the husband of the house must approach unto the Elohim. Where will he go to do that, and who are the Elohim?
5. What is the man’s purpose for approaching unto the Elohim?
IV. Speeches of Transgression (verse 8)
In every case where a transgression has occurred, folks will testify. Every speech that is part of that testimony must come unto the Elohim (the Gods) whether the testimony refers to a transgression involving an ox, ass, lamb, a form-fitting garment, or anything living of value that dies (perishes). Elohim will indicate the guilty person; that person must make peace twice to his neighbour.
1. What is a speech of transgression?
2. What is a form-fitting garment, and why is that listed?
3. What does “concerning every perishing” mean?
4. What does “He is this” mean?
5. How can their speeches come unto the Elohim?
6. What does “Whoever Elohim will ‘culpabilize’” mean?
7. How will Elohim point out who is culpable?
8. Will the decisions made always be according to justice if these procedures are followed?
V. Responsibility When Guarding Animals (verses 9-12)
When a man will give to his neighbour an ass, ox, lamb, or any beast to guard, if the animal will die or will be broken or captured by someone else, if there is no seer—that is, no witness to what occurred, both the guard must vow to the owner that he didn’t send his hand into an errand of his neighbour—that he didn’t participate in the harm, destruction or loss.
The husbands (the owner) will take the dead or harmed animal (if it is still there), and he will take the vow. The guard will not make peace; he pays nothing.
If on investigation it is found that the guard had stolen from his neighbour, he will make peace with the owner.
If the animal is found torn, the guard will bring the animal to the owner; the guard will not make peace; he will pay nothing.
1. Why must they both vow to each other?
2. Why wouldn’t a person who was taking care of his neighbour’s animals just be up front with what took place if one of the animals died or was harmed?
3. Again, why is husbands (plural) used instead of husband when the text assumes just one by having a singular verb?
4. Why does Yehovah hold no guilt for the person who was guarding his neighbour’s animals, during which time the animals were harmed or died?
5. Verse 10 states, “and his husbands shall take.” What shall they take?
6. Won’t this leave bad feelings between the neighbours?
7. If he doesn’t make peace, does that mean that the neighbours will remain in a state of anger (like war) with each other?
8. Explain the circumstance behind “And if, stealing, he will steal from with him”:
9. The next statement reads, “And if, tearing, he shall be torn, he will bring him unto the torn-[one].” Explain this circumstance; what is occurring?
VI. Borrower’s Responsibility (verses 13-14)
When a man will ask to use something from his neighbour, and what he is using from his neighbour becomes broken or dead while he is using it, if the husbands (the owner or the responsible party over the item, not referring to the borrower) are not present when this occurs, the man who asked to use the item or animal must make peace.
If the husbands (the owner or the person who is normally responsible for the animal or item) is with the one who desires to use it, no peace will be made.
If instead of being borrowed the animal or object is hired (that is, rented), and is broken or dead in the process of being used, the price of the hire is all that will be paid; that was the risk in hiring the animal or object out.
1. What is the man asking from his neighbour?
2. How did the animal become broken or dead?
3. What does “his husbands are not with him” mean?
4. Why doesn’t the borrower have to make peace if the husbands are with the animal?
5. Suppose that the owner is walking away from the loaned animal, and goes behind a barn. Suppose that the animal drops dead at that moment; must the borrower make peace?
6. Explain “If a hire, he came via his hire”:
VII. Suckering a Ripe Woman to Have Sex (verses 15-16)
When a man will ‘sucker’ (fool) a ripe woman (that is, she is old enough to get pregnant without danger), and the woman isn’t betrothed, and the man will lie with her (have sexual intercourse with her), the man must endow her to himself as his woman (his wife).
Now, if the woman’s father refuses to give her to him when he offers the dowry (the payment that is a bride price), the man who ‘suckered’ the woman must weigh out the amount in silver that is a normal dowry for ripe women, and must give that amount to the woman’s father; he gets nothing else from this deal.
1. What is a ripe woman?
2. If he suckers her, what is he doing in this text?
3. What is betrothed?
4. What does “he will lie with her” mean?
5. What does endow mean?
6. What does “he will endow her to him to a woman” mean?
7. What occurs if she was already betrothed or if he was betrothed when he did this to a woman to whom he isn’t betrothed?
8. What did he do to ‘sucker’ her—that is, to fool her into having sex?
9. Suppose that the woman ‘suckers’ the man into sexual intercourse; what would be the ruling on this?
10. Why would her father refuse to give her to him?
11. Must he pay in silver?
12. What is a dowry?
13. What is the dowry of the ripe women?
14. What will occur if the man and his family cannot afford the dowry?
15. Suppose that the father of the woman determines that this man will have his daughter has a wife, but the daughter doesn’t desire to have this man as her husband; what does the Torah teach regarding this?
16. Suppose that the woman becomes pregnant from this ‘suckering,’ and suppose that the father refused to give his daughter to him; who is responsible to rear the child?
17. Suppose that the woman’s father is dead, and she is living with her mother; does her mother’s say in these matters work the same as the father’s say?
VIII. Dead Witch (verse 17)
Under no circumstance is a witch to be permitted to stay alive in Israel.
1. What is a witch?
2. What is the male version of a witch?
3. If an Israeli becomes a warlock, must he also die?
4. Why is Yehovah so against witches?
5. Are all witches ugly hags?
6. Should we kill witches today?
IX. Lethal Bestiality (verse 18)
Every person in Israel who has sex with an animal must be put to death.
1. What is a bedder with a beast?
2. Why must such a person be put to death?
3. Should we put such persons to death today?
X. Devoted Idolater (verse 19)
Anyone who sacrifices to gods (not referring to Yehovah) will be devoted to destruction as the property of the false gods. That person will be put to death and will not be permitted to live.
Sacrificing to Yehovah, and to Him alone, is permissible.
1. What does kherem—that is, devoted to destruction mean?
2. The text states, “A sacrificer to elohim shall be kherem.” Why would a person who sacrifices to elohim be killed?
3. Suppose that a sojourner from some other race comes to stay a while in Israel, and is normally a sacrificer to other gods besides Yehovah; must the Israelis kill that person?
4. To whom are the Israelis permitted to do sacrifices?
XI. Cheating and Oppressing a Sojourner (verse 20)
Yehovah commanded Israel to not cheat a sojourner. Israel also must not oppress a sojourner. The reason is given: the Israelis were sojourners in the land of Egypt!
1. Why would an Israeli desire to cheat a sojourner?
2. What does oppress mean?
3. What is wrong with oppressing a sojourner?
4. The Israelis were sojourners how long in the land of Egypt?
5. What famous command fits this text?
XII. Humiliating a Widow and an Orphan (verses 21-23)
The Israelis must not humiliate any widow, and they must not humiliate any orphan. If Israel humiliates him, screaming, he will scream unto Yehovah, and Yehovah will hearken to his scream! Yehovah’s nose will then heat, and He will kill the Israelis via sword! The women of the Israelis will become widows, and the children of the Israelis will become orphans!
1. What is the difference between being humble and being humiliated?
2. Why would Israelis humiliate a widow?
3. Why would Israelis humiliate an orphan?
4. Who is him in, “thou wilt humiliate him”?
5. What will this widow or orphan do if she/he is humiliated?
6. How will Yehovah respond to this scream?
7. Why will Yehovah react so strongly, that He will kill many for the sake of a few mistreated individuals? Is this justice?
8. Is making Israeli women widows when those women did nothing wrong, and making Israeli children orphans when those children did nothing wrong, truly justice?
XIII. Lending to the Poor (verses 24-26)
‘Bringing silver near’ to a humble one of Yehovah’s people (the People of Israel) is akin to lending. It is making silver available. The Israelis must not be to this humble one as a creditor—that is, as one who is lending, and who therefore pressures this person to pay the amount owed. The text continues to command that the Israelis must not put ‘a bite’ upon him; that bite will include charging interest.
Israel is permitted to take collateral—that is, to take something of value in the process of lending. Taking this collateral item is called binding. If the form of the binding is a fitted garment, it must be returned to the humble one ‘unto the coming of the sun’—that is, by sunset. The reason is given: this garment is the humble person’s being’s blanket covering; it belongs only to the person’s being. It is the person’s garment to the person’s skin. Yehovah asks, “Via what will he bed?”—that is, in what will he sleep? If Israel does take this humble person’s fitted garment, and doesn’t return it at sunset, this person will scream unto Yehovah, and Yehovah will hearken! Why? Yehovah favours!
1. What does bring silver near mean in this text?
2. Why does the text specify, “If thou wilt bring-near silver with my people”?
3. The text states, “with the humble one with thee.” What does being humble have to do with a text on lending?
4. What does “thou shalt not be to him as a creditor” mean?
5. What is a bite in, “Ye shall not put upon him a bite”?
6. Verse 24 started out with thou and thee—both being singular. It then switched to ye, which is plural. Why did Yehovah change it from singular to plural?
7. What is this binding mentioned in verse 25?
8. Verse 25 continues, “unto the coming [setting] of the sun thou shalt return him to him.” What does this mean?
9. Who is her in, “For He is her blanket-covering, hers alone”?
10. What does “For He is her blanket-covering, hers alone” mean?
11. Explain, “He is his garment to his skin”:
12. Who is asking the question, “Via what will he bed?”
13. Why would a person scream unto Yehovah if his or her fitted garment were being held by the lender?
14. What will Yehovah do when He hearkens?
15. Yehovah said these things to the Israelis about their treatment of other Israelis. Suppose that an Israeli lends to a sojourner who has become poor, and holds a fitted garment overnight from the sojourner; suppose the sojourner screams unto Yehovah the Gods of Israel. Will Yehovah hearken, or will He ignore the shouts of the sojourner?
16. Some folks in some other cultures greatly mistreat sojourners. What does Yehovah do in other cultures and races regarding sojourners?
XIV. Lightly Esteeming Elohim (verse 27)
Israel must not lightly esteem (that is, consider of little value) Elohim.
1. What does lightly esteem mean?
2. How does a person behave who lightly esteems Elohim?
3. Since the word Elohim is the same word used in verse 19, and since the Hebrew language doesn’t have capitalization (which means that a reader in Hebrew won’t see any difference), how can the reader tell that this refers to the Gods of Israel instead of the false gods of the races?
XV. Cursing the Carrier (verse 27)
The carrier is the leader. If Israel curses the carrier in Israel’s people, Yehovah will react!
1. What is a carrier?
2. Are there many carriers in this world (besides in Israel)?
3. Who chooses the leaders in all cultures, races, lands, etc.? Since some come to power by violence, some by being elected, some by power, some by birth, and some by other means, who truly chooses the leaders?
4. What is wrong with cursing the carrier in the people of Israel if the cursing is done in private where no one hears and where no harm is done?
XVI. Giving Firstborn (verses 28-29)
Israel must not delay Israel’s fullness (Israel’s harvest) and Israel’s weeping (also referring to the dripping of juices that are produced by squeezing fruit, but consider the type!).
Israel must give a firstborn of Israel’s children to Yehovah. Israel must do the same thing to Israel’s ox, to Israel’s flock. The firstborn will be with his mother seven days. Israel must give him to Yehovah in the eighth day.
1. What is this fullness?
2. What does delaying the fullness involve?
3. What is thy weeping?
4. What do the fullness and the weeping typify?
5. The next statement, “Thou shalt give to me a firstborn of thy children,” uses a firstborn instead of the firstborn. Why is it worded this way, and how can the ‘thou’ do this?
6. Why must Israel also give a firstborn of an ox and of a flock?
7. Why must an ox or a goat or a sheep firstborn be with its mother seven days before being given to Yehovah?
XVII. Owned (verse 30)
The Israelis shall be mortals (that is, alive in their bodies that can die—not referring to being in their bodies that cannot die) of the Holy One of Israel, belonging to Yehovah.
1. What does “And ye shall be mortals of Holy-[One] to me” mean?
XVIII. Eating Torn Animals (verse 30)
If the Israelis find a torn animal in a field, they must not eat that animal. They must sling that animal to a dog!
1. What is a torn one?
2. What is wrong with eating the flesh of a torn animal in the field?
3. What does eating flesh of a torn one typify?
4. What does “in a field” tell the reader?
5. Why must the Israelis sling this torn carcass specifically to a dog?