Genesis 36 – Esau Questions and Proposed Answers Supplied

About Esau (from Genesis 36)

Why are the birthings of Esau mentioned in the Bible when Yehovah hated Esau and saw him as so evil?

What is significant about Esau taking his women from the daughters of Canaan?  Why did Esau leave Canaan?

Why does the biblical text state, “Esau: he is Edom”?


Background and Printed Text: Genesis 36


1And these are the birthings of Hairy [Esau]; he is Red [Edom].


2Hairy [Esau] took his women from the daughters of Merchant [Canaan]:


Her-Witness [Adah] daughter of Strength [Elon] the Hottie [Hittite],




My-Tent-Is-A-High-Place [Aholibamah] daughter of He-Answered/Humbled [Anah], daughter of Dye [Zibeon] the Life [Hivite]




Spice [Basmat] daughter of Mighty-[One]-Shall-Hearken [Ishmael] sister of Fruitfulnesses [Nevayot].


4And Her-Witness [Adah] childed My-Mighty-[One]-Is-Fine-Gold [Eliphaz] to Hairy [Esau].


And Spice [Basmat] childed They-Shepherded-Mighty-[One] [Reuel].


5And My-Tent-Is-A-High-Place [Aholibamah] childed He-Will-Cause-To-Be-Made [Yeush]




He-Will-Hide [Yaalam]




Bald [Korakh].


These are the sons of Hairy [Esau] who were childed to him in the land of Merchant [Canaan].


6And Hairy [Esau] took his women and his sons and his daughters and all the beings of his house and his cattle and all his beasts and all his acquisition that he possessed in the land of Merchant [Canaan]. And he walked unto a land from the faces of He-Will-Heel [Jacob] his brother. 7For their possession was multiplied from dwelling together. And the land of their sojourning will not be able to carry them from the faces of their acquisitions.


8And Hairy [Esau] dwelt in Goat-Kid Mountain [Mount Seir]. Hairy [Esau]: he is Red [Edom].


9And these are the birthings of Hairy [Esau] father of Red [Edom] in Goat-Kid Mountain [Mount Seir].


10These are the names of the sons of Hairy [Esau]:


My-Mighty-[One]-Is-Fine-Gold [Eliphaz] son of Her-Witness [Adah], woman of Hairy [Esau];


They-Shepherded-Mighty-[One] [Reuel] son of Spice [Basmat], woman of Hairy [Esau].


11And the sons of My-Mighty-[One]-Is-Fine-Gold [Eliphaz] were


South [Teman],


He-Says [Omar],


Oversight [Zepho]




Their-Bellow [‘Moo’ – Gatam]




He-Acquired/He-Sprinkled [Kenaz].


12And Thou-Wilt-Restrain [Timna] was a concubine to My-Mighty-[One]-Is-Fine-Gold [Eliphaz] son of Hairy [Esau]. And she childed


Lick-Lap-People [Amalek] to My-Mighty-[One]-Is-Fine-Gold [Eliphaz].


These are sons of Her-Witness [Adah] Hairy’s [Esau’s] woman.


13And these are the sons of They-Shepherded-Mighty-[One] [Reuel]:


He-Penetrated [Nahat]




Sunrise [Zerah],


Over-There [Shammah]




From-This [Mezzah].


These were sons of Spice [Basmat] Hairy’s [Esau’s] woman.


14And these were sons of My-Tent-Is-A-High-Place [Aholibamah] daughter of He-Answered/Humbled [Anah] daughter of Dye [Zibeon], Hairy’s [Esau’s] woman. And she childed


He-Will-Cause-To-Be-Made [Yeush]




He-Will-Hide [Yaalam]




Bald [Korakh]


to Hairy [Esau].


15These are Aloofs [Thousands], sons of Hairy [Esau]. The sons of My-Mighty-[One]-Is-Fine-Gold [Eliphaz] firstborn of Hairy [Esau]:


Aloof South [Teman],


Aloof He-Said [Omar],


Aloof Oversight [Zepho],


Aloof He-Acquired/He-Sprinkled [Kenaz],


16Aloof Bald [Korakh],


Aloof Their-Bellow [‘Moo’ – Gatam],




Aloof Lick-Lap-People [Amalek]—


these are the Aloofs of My-Mighty-[One]-Is-Fine-Gold [Eliphaz] who came into the land of Red [Edom]. These are sons of Her-Witness [Adah].


17And these are the sons of They-Shepherded-Mighty-[One] [Reuel] Hairy’s [Esau’s] son:


Aloof He-Penetrated [Nahat],


Aloof Sunrise [Zerakh],


Aloof Over-There [Shammah],


Aloof From-This [Mizzah].


These are the Thousands [Aloofs] of They-Shepherded-Mighty-[One] [Reuel] in the land of Red [Edom]. These are sons of Spice [Basmat], Hairy’s [Esau’s] woman.


18And these are sons of My-Tent-Is-A-High-Place [Aholibamah] Hairy’s [Esau’s] woman:


Aloof He-Will-Cause-To-Be-Made [Yeush],


Aloof He-Will-Hide [Yaalam],


Aloof Bald [Korakh].


These are Thousands [Aloofs] of My-Tent-Is-A-High-Place [Aholibamah] daughter of He-Answered/Humbled [Anah], Hairy’s [Esau’s] woman. 19These are the sons of Hairy [Esau]. And these are their Aloofs. He is Red [Edom].


20These are sons of Goat-Kid [Seir] the cave-dweller [Horite], inhabitants of the land:


Envelop [Lotan]




Shower [Shobal]




Dye [Zibeon]




He-Answered/Humbled [Anah]




Fattened [Dishon]




He-Helped [Ezer]




Their {fem.}-Threshing [Dishan].


These are the Aloofs of the cave-dweller [Horite], the children of Goat-Kid [Seir] in the land of Red [Edom].


22And the children of Envelop [Lotan] were


My-Cave-dweller [Hori]




He-Caused-Discomfiture [Hemam].


And Envelop’s [Lotan’s] sister was Thou-Wilt-Restrain [Timna].


23And these are the children of Shower [Shobal]:


Ascension [Alvan]




He-Makes-Descend [Manahat]




Heap-Of-Confusion [Eval],


Of-His-Lip [Shepho]




Their-Lust [Onan].


24And these are the children of Dye [Zibeon]:


Where-Is-Yah [Ayah]




He-Answered/Humbled [Anah];


he is the He-Answered/Humbled [Anah] who found the seas in the desert during his pasturing the asses to Dye [Zibeon] his father.


25And these are the children of He-Answered/Humbled [Anah]:


Fattened [Dishon]




My-Tent-Is-A-High-Place [Aholibamah] daughter of He-Answered/Humbled [Anah].


26And these are the children of Fattened [Dishon]:


Their {fem.}-Desire [Hemdan]




Fire-Is-In-Them {fem.} [Eshban]




Their {fem.}-Remainder [Eetran]




Their {fem.}-He-Lamb [Kheran].


27These are the children of He-Helped [Ezer]:


Their {fem.}-Growing-Old [Bilhan]




Their {fem.}-Trembling [Zaavan]




Their-Reeling [See root 05781 and text, Akan].


28These are children of Their {fem.}-Threshing [Dishan]:


Wooded [Uz]




I-Will-Ululate [Aran].


29These are Thousands [Aloofs] of the Cave-dwellers [Horites]:


Aloof Envelop [Lotan],


Aloof Shower [Shobal],


Aloof Dye [Zibeon],


Aloof He-Answered/Humbled [Anah],


30Aloof Fattened [Dishon],


Aloof He-Helped [Ezer],


Aloof Their {fem.}-Threshing [Dishan].


These are Thousands [Aloofs] of the My-Cave-dweller [Hori] to their Thousands [Aloofs] in the land of Goat-Kid [Seir].


31And these are the kings who reigned in the land of Red [Edom] before a king reigned to the children of Israel. 32And He-Swallowed [Bela] the son of Burned [Beor] reigned in Red [Edom]. And the name of his city is Adjudication-To-Come [Dinhabah].


33And He-Swallowed [Bela] died. And Yehovah-Shall-Hollow-Out [Yovav] the son of Sunrise [Zerakh] from In-Her-Tribulation [Bozrah] reigned under him.


34And Yehovah-Shall-Hollow-Out [Yovav] died. And Their-Haste [Husham] from the land of My-South [Temani] reigned under him.


35And Their-Haste [Husham] died. And The-Lover [Hadad], son of He-Isolated [Bedad], the smiter of Contention [Midian] in the field of From-Papa [Moab] reigned under him. And the name of his city is Iniquity [Avit].


36And The-Lover [Hadad] died. And Garment [Samlah] from Her-Vinedresser [Masrekah] reigned under him.


37And Garment [Samlah] died. And Asked [Shaul] from Boulevards-of-The-River [Rehobot HaNahar] reigned under him.


38And Asked [Shaul] died. And Lord-Favour [Baalhanan] son of Mouse [Achbor] reigned under him.


39And Lord-Favour [Baalhanan] the son of Mouse [Achbor] died. And Majesty [Hadar] reigned under him. And the name of his city is Groan [Pau]. And his woman’s name is What-Will-Mighty-[One]-Well-Do [Mehetavel] daughter of He-Is-Driving-Away [Matred] daughter of Waters-Of-Gold [Mezahav].


40And these are the names of Thousands [Aloofs] of Hairy [Esau] to their families to their places via their names:


Aloof Thou-Wilt-Restrain [Timna],


Aloof They-Ascended-Her [Alvah],


Aloof He-Will-Give [Yetet],


41Aloof My-Tent-Is-A-High-Place [Aholibamah],


Aloof These [Elah],


Aloof Turning [Pinon],


42Aloof He-Acquired/He-Sprinkled [Kenaz],


Aloof South [Teman],


Aloof Enfortress [Mivtzar],


43Aloof My-Teller-Is-Mighty-[One] [Magdiel],


Aloof Their-City [Iram].


These are Aloofs of Red [Edom] to their settlements in the land of their possession. He is Hairy [Esau], father of Red [Edom].


I. Esau and His Wives (verses 1-3)


Yehovah recorded Esau’s wives and sons, giving the births of each. These texts confirmed that Esau is Edom.


Esau’s women (wives) came from the daughters of Canaan. One was named Adah, another was Aholibamah, and the third was Basmat.


Adah’s papa was Elon, a Hittite.


Aholibamah’s mama was Anah, and Anah was the daughter of Zibeon, a Hivite.


Basmat’s papa was Ishmael, and Basmat’s sister was Navayot.



1. Why are the birthings of Esau mentioned in the Bible when Yehovah hated Esau and saw him as so evil? Yehovah only puts necessary information into the Bible. I will propose some reasons for his listing Esau’s and Seir’s lineages:


  • This tells readers where and when some characters who will be very important in the Bible were born.
  • This shows readers how much Yehovah blessed this man (Esau) whom He hated.
  • The names in the lineages all have meanings; I will propose connecting them together later in this chapter.
  • The names themselves show how those naming the children felt about what was occurring when the children were born. Some names show how they felt about Yehovah and life.

2. Why must the reader know that Esau is Edom? Edom will be so important in the Bible in later events. Edom is a direct brother to Israel.


3. What is significant about Esau taking his women from the daughters of Canaan? Avraham had warned his slave to not take a woman from the daughters of Canaan for his son, Isaac. If Esau had cared, he would have found out why. Esau had no investment in Spiritual things, so he chose sexy women instead of women that were of appropriate behaviour and deportment (proper personal conduct).


4. What is a Hittite? A Hittite is a member of a race that became very vile in idolatry and open sexual practices (pornography). Yehovah abhorred the Hittites.


5. Is Anah a male or a female in verse 2? Anah is a female, since she is the daughter of Zibeon. Another Anah is male in this lineage. (Some are convinced that Anah is only male, a son of Zibeon. I am not convinced of this.)


6. Why is Basmat’s sister Nevayot mentioned? I wondered the same thing, since this occurs several times in this chapter. I will see when the names are strung together, but I have another idea. I propose that Yehovah mentions persons of exceptional valiance in doing well when that person is related to another who must be mentioned. If this is the case, Yehovah knows Nevayot’s name, and lets readers know this. Most names are only for lineages, so the names that are not directly part of those lineages really stand out!




II. Esau’s Women Bear Children in Canaan (verses 4-5)


Adah’s first son was Eliphaz.


Basmat’s first son was Reuel.


Aholibamah’s first son was Yeush. She also childed Yaalam and Korakh. These births were in the land of Canaan.



1. What kind of a name is “My Mighty One is Fine Gold”? It sounds like a declaration of idolatry! The Mighty One of Israel isn’t gold; He is Spirit, and He can appear as a human and even be born as a baby.


2. What does “They shepherded Mighty One” tell? If a mighty one needs to be shepherded, that mighty one isn’t very independent. The Mighty One of Israel is a shepherd; He doesn’t need to be shepherded.


3. What kind of a name is “My Tent is a High Place”? High places were most commonly used for idolatry and some were used for open pornography (open sexual actions for public viewing).


4. Why name a child Bald? If the child is born bald, that is a good enough reason! (I don’t know beyond that.)




III. The Move, the Meeting and the Move (verses 6-8)


Esau took his women, sons and daughters, all the beings of his house, his cattle and all his animals, and everything that he had acquired in Canaan; it was time to move. He met with Jacob, and then he continued on away from Jacob. Their possession greatly increased from their dwelling together. The land could not carry them both because of all they acquired.


Esau dwelt in Mount Seir. The text again confirmed that Esau is Edom.



1. Why did Esau leave Canaan? Esau had to keep moving with his herds and flocks. Grass was only good for so long; the animals needed fresh places to graze.


2. Did Esau spend any time with Jacob after leaving the area of Canaan where he had been for a long time? Yes. The text indicates that both Esau’s and Jacob’s possession was multiplied from dwelling together. Thus, they did spend time together.


3. What does “he walked unto a land from the faces of Jacob his brother” mean? This means that Esau left Jacob, his brother, walking unto another location. Esau took his cattle and sheep, along with all things he possessed, to move on to another location.


4. What does “the land of their sojourning will not be able to carry them from the faces of their acquisitions” mean? This means that the soil on which the sheep, cattle and people of both Jacob and Esau are dwelling will be harmed and worn out if they both stay together there. It is a good land, but it is not so well watered that it can grow grass rapidly enough to support both groups.


5. Why would a mountain be called Goat Kid Mountain? It is a place where goat kids (young goats) like to play, run, climb, and do other things that young goats enjoy.


Thus, it is rocky with some grass; it has high cliffs and overhangs; it has good hiding places and places for goats to jump; it has places that are sheltered.


6. Why did Esau dwell on this particular mountain? This would be a good and safe place to watch the cattle and flocks, and it probably would have cool places that protect from the heat of the day. (Some of these places have caves, which tend to stay far cooler than open areas.)


I did not find information on the particular mountain that Esau used. It had to be good for his cattle, sheep, and persons.


7. Why did the text again state, “Esau: he is Edom”? This chapter will state this several more times. Yehovah recognized this as very important for readers to know.




IV. Esau’s Birthings in Mount Seir through Adah (verses 9-12)


The text then listed the birthings of Esau’s children starting with those that took place in Canaan and continuing with those that took place in Mount Seir.


Adah bore Eliphaz.


Basmat bore Reuel.


Eliphaz also had sons:


  • Teman
  • Omar
  • Zepho
  • Gatam
  • Kenaz

Eliphaz had a concubine named Timna. She bore Amalek.


All these births are attributed to Adah.



1. Why did Yehovah again mention the names of sons of Esau, as if they hadn’t already been mentioned above? Yehovah sometimes recaps what He has already said as a starting point for further explanation. I propose that this is one of the reasons.


2. How would you liked to be named, Gatam? I propose that Gatam means their bellow, or their moo! It is a strange name!


3. What is a concubine? She is a wife, except that she does not inherit anything from her husband. Sometimes a concubine was a slavewoman that the slavemistress gave to her husband in order for him to produce a child by her. She is like a wife, except that she doesn’t always have the same authority as a wife, and she gets no inheritance for her children.


4. What does Lick-Lap-People mean? Folks and animals drink water in different ways. Some drink from a cup, but a few lap it up or lick it up like a dog would (see Judges 7:5 for an example). I can only guess how a baby obtained this name, but I suspect that it had something to do with the way the little one liked to lap up milk and water.




V. Esau’s Birthings in Mount Seir through Basmat (verse 13)


Reuel had the following sons:


  • Nahat
  • Zerah
  • Shammah
  • Mezzah

These births are attributed to Basmat.



1. Who was Reuel’s wife? The text doesn’t tell.


2. How could these be sons of Basmat if Reuel was the son of Basmat? Basmat and Esau birthed Reuel. Reuel and an unnamed woman who was his wife bore these sons. Thus, these sons were from Basmat just as you are from your parents, you are from your grandparents, you are from your great grandparents, etc. Your grandmother is just as much your mother as your mother is!


VI. Esau’s Birthings in Mount Seir through Aholibamah (verse 14)


Aholibamah was the daughter of Anah, and Anah was the daughter of Zibeon. She childed the following sons:


  • Yeush
  • Yaalam
  • Korakh



1. Several times when Aholibamah is mentioned, she is called the “daughter of Anah, daughter of Zibeon, Esau’s woman.” Why doesn’t the text mention only Aholibamah’s father? Why are several persons mentioned to identify Aholibamah? Yehovah desired to identify Aholibamah with Anah (I propose that Anah is a woman) because of some characteristic of Anah that isn’t mentioned, or perhaps because when I string the names together, her name will be important. Yet, three times, Aholibamah and Anah are mentioned together. This must be very important.




VII. The Aloofs from Esau and Adah (verses 15-16)


An aloof is a ruler over a thousand or more persons. Eliphaz, the firstborn of Esau, had a number of sons who became aloofs:


  • Teman
  • Omar
  • Zepho
  • Kenaz
  • Korakh
  • Gatam
  • Amalek

They are sons of Adah (who bore Eliphaz).



1. What is an aloof? It is a person who is over a thousand or more folks. It is like being a warlord. The Hebrew word for one thousand is elef, and is directly related to aloof.


2. Whose children are these aloofs? They are directly from Eliphaz, and Eliphaz is the son of Adah; thus, they are from Adah, the grandmother.




VIII. The Aloofs from Esau and Basmat (verse 17)


Reuel also produced some aloofs:


  • Nahat
  • Zerakh
  • Shammah
  • Mizzah



1. Whose children were these? They were from Reuel, their direct father, and from Basmat, their grandmother (and Esau, their grandfather).




IX. The Aloofs from Esau and Aholibamah (verses 18-19)


Aholibamah also produced leaders:


  • Yeush
  • Yaalam
  • Korakh

The text again tells that Aholibamah was the daughter of Anah. It also repeats that these are Esau’s sons, and Esau’s sons’ aloofs. Esau is again identified as Edom.



1. How did so many grandsons of Esau become aloofs? Esau must have produced very good—or at least very strong—leaders.




X. The Sons of Seir (verses 20-21)


Another important man in the area was Seir from a race known as cave dwellers (Horites). Seir had some sons:


  • Lotan
  • Shobal
  • Zibeon
  • Anah
  • Dishon
  • Ezer
  • Dishan

They were also the aloofs from the cave dweller race, children of Seir in Edom’s (Esau’s) land.



1. What is a caveman? It is a man who dwells in caves. While most think of cavemen as very stupid and basic humans with little or no learning, cavemen in the Bible had very special skills, since food can’t be grown in a cave (except for edible mushrooms). These cave dwellers had sheep and goats, fruit trees, crops of other plants, and game that they hunted. They did very well in a land that looked desolate.


2. Why would anyone want to live in a cave? The lands in the area of Canaan were violent lands. Caves offered protection from outside invaders:


  • Hiding in caves was a good way to escape from stronger enemies who didn’t know the caves.
  • Livestock, like sheep and goats, could be hidden in caves.
  • The giant rock hills above the caves were very good places to watch for enemies; enemies often would not be able to see watchmen who could move very quietly.
  • Even larger armies could be attacked as they tried to get through narrow passages between the rock cliffs; this often scared soldiers.
  • Caves were good places to store food supplies without them being spotted by enemies.
  • Caves were cooler in temperature than the areas outside the caves in the summer, and warmer in temperature than the areas outside the caves in the winter.
  • Caves sometimes had water supplies (streams) running through them.
  • Caves made very sturdy houses.
  • Some caves were large enough that cooking could be done without the smoke being visible from the outside.
  • Views from on top of the hills and mountains where there are caves can be very beautiful.
  • Crops grown between the hills can be hidden from enemies who don’t know the area, and can be free from insect pests.
  • Very little rainfall is necessary for good crops between the rocky hills where there are caves.

3. Why would Fattened (Dishon) be a good name for a child? A fattened baby often was a healthy baby. Being called fattened was not an insult. Food sometimes was hard to acquire in harsh lands.




XI. Lotan’s Relatives (verse 22)


Lotan had some sons:


  • Hori
  • Hemam

Lotan also had a sister: Timna.



1. Why does the text give Lotan’s sister’s name? Timna was Eliphaz’s concubine. This gives another connection between Esau’s people and the cave people.




XII. Shobal’s Relatives (verse 23)


Shobal had sons:


  • Alvan
  • Manahat
  • Eval
  • Shepho
  • Onan


1. Look at the names. Do you see anything strange? I see Ascension, then He makes descend, then heap of confusion, then Of his lip, then their lust. This doesn’t sound like happy names. The names show a deterioration of the culture.


2. What is lust? It is a very strong desire for something—a desire that causes a person to focus on whatever it is, and that causes some to pay a high price for it.


Lust isn’t always bad; it can be very good. Lusting for something that will help to do service and be beneficial is good lusting.




XIII. Zibeon’s Relatives (verse 24)


Zibeon had two sons:


  • Ayah
  • Anah

This Anah found the seas in the desert while pasturing asses to Zibeon his father!



1. What kind of a name is “Where is Yah”? It is a name that shows great disappointment in Yah (the short form of Yehovah).


2. The text states that Anah was the man “who found the seas in the desert during his pasturing the asses to Zibeon his father.” What does this mean? Water is usually rare in the desert. There is a desert in the United States known as Death Valley. It is a terribly hot place with very little rainfall (in the range of two inches a year). Yet, there is a small opening in a rocky part of Death Valley that opens to a very large underground lake that is very deep. The water is very good. The same must be true in the desert area of Israel (Canaan), except there must be more than one underground lake! The text states that he found “the seas” (plural) showing at least two! Those seas are unknown today. If anyone were to find these seas, the whole area would become very populated, and many problems would be solved. (I don’t know if anyone is even looking for these seas today.)


These seas are still there. What a great find they would be!




XIV. Anah’s Relatives (verse 25)


Anah had one son and one daughter named here:


  • Dishon (a son)
  • Aholibamah (a daughter).



1. Are two persons, one male and one female, named Anah in this chapter? That is what I have understood! We have names like that in our cultures.




XV. Dishon’s Relatives (verse 26)


Dishon had the following sons:


  • Hemdan
  • Eshban
  • Eetran
  • Kheran


1. Why would someone name a child “Fire is in them”? That is a very curious name! It could refer to the child’s eyes!




XVI. Ezer’s Relatives (verse 27)


Ezer’s sons were:


  • Bilhan
  • Zaavan
  • Akan


1. What does reeling mean? It means to be swaying back and forth like a drunk or like one who is about to fall.




XVII. Dishan’s Relatives (verse 28)


Dishan had two sons:


  • Uz
  • Aran


1. What does ululate mean? It means to give a higher-pitched, very loud vibrating sound like a cheer at a game, but yet very different. Double-click on the following with your sound turned on to hear an example of a ululation:



Follow this link to hear a ululation:




[By Benboncan ( _Ululating.wav (]




XVIII. The Aloofs of the Horites (verses 29-30)


The Horites, cave dwellers, had aloofs:


  • Lotan
  • Shobal
  • Zibeon
  • Anah
  • Dishon
  • Ezer
  • Dishan

Thus, the Horites also had aloofs in Seir.



1. Why did Yehovah record the aloofs among the Horites? What we see as history Yehovah sees as part of the future. These groups did well with the type of government that aloofs provided. This government is far smaller and more personal. These aloofs are more like lords (rulers of smaller groups) than like kings.


These types of government will be best for groups that are spread out; they will still be used far into the future.


If there are other reasons why He recorded these things, I can’t think of the reasons.




XIX. The First Kings in Edom (verses 31-39)


Edom had kings before the Israelis did.


  • The first king was Bela, the son of Beor, who had the city named Dinhabah.
  • After Bela died, Yovav son of Zerakh was the next king. He came from the city of Bozrah.
  • After Yovaha died, Husham from the land of Temani was the next king.
  • After Husham died, Hadad son of Bedad was the next king. (Bedad was known as the smiter of Midian; he did this battle action in a Moabite field.) Hadad’s city was Avit.
  • After Hadad died, Samlah from Masrekah was the next king.
  • After Samlah died, Shaul from Rehobot was the next king.
  • After Shaul died, Baalhanan son of Achbor was the next king.
  • After Baalhanan the son of Achbor died, Hadar was the next king. Hadar’s city was Pau. Hadar’s woman was Mehetavel. She was the daughter of Matred, and Matred was the daughter of Mezahav.




1. What is the difference between an aloof and a king? A king is over larger groups and more diverse groups. The aloofs ruled over smaller groups that had one basic culture, not groups of cultures.


2. Why did kings begin sooner with Esau than with Israel? Esau grew at a much faster rate, and Esau remained independent. Israel went into Egypt, finally becoming slaves to the king of Egypt (known as a pharaoh).


3. Why should the Bible record the names of kings and their principle cities? Archaeologists (scientists who examine what is dug up from the ground to understand cultures and religions of groups that lived long ago) will find some of these cities and the names of the kings. They will confirm what the Bible’s historical record said (though most archaeologists are not interested in the Bible, and some even try to disprove the Bible).


4. Look at the proposed meanings of the names in verse 33. What do these proposed names tell? Some of the names show that some folks thought about the future, especially the End Times. If my proposed meanings are true, some even thought about Yehovah.


5. What did Hadad do, and where did he do it, according to verse 35? Hadad smote (beat in battle) Midian (another race) in the field of Moab (Moab is yet another race). He was a good warrior.


6. What does naming a city Avit show? I propose that it means iniquity. If this is correct, it was a wild city where folks sinned and enjoyed sinning. (Such cities eventually are destroyed.)


7. What are “Boulevards of the River”? Boulevards are wide streets that are often tree-lined and divided. I am wondering if the streets had the river as the divider. It sounds very pretty.


8. What does “He is driving away” mean in this text? It doesn’t refer to an automobile, since there were no such things! To drive away means to cause to leave. It isn’t a friendly act.


9. Why are three women mentioned in verse 40? King Hadar was married to Mehetavel. Mehetavel’s mother was Matred. Matred’s parent was Mezahav. (I cannot tell if Mezahav is a man or a woman. Thus, I cannot tell if three women or two women were mentioned.) They must either be important characters before Yehovah, or their names have important meanings when they are strung together.




XX. More of Esau’s Aloofs (verses 40-43)


Esau had more aloofs identified by names with their families and their places:


  • Timna
  • Alvah
  • Yetet
  • Aholibamah
  • Elah
  • Pinon
  • Kenaz
  • Teman
  • Mivtzar
  • Magdiel
  • Iram

These Edomite aloofs were over settlements in the land of their possession.


Esau is the father of Edom.



1. Who are these aloofs? Some names are the same that we saw earlier in the chapter. Timna was a woman; yet the term aloof is masculine. The last part of the last verse states, “These are aloofs of Edom to their settlements in the land of their possession.” I am thinking that they named locations after these famous persons in Edom: after Timna, Alvah, Yetet, Aholibamah, Elah, Pinon, Kenaz, Teman, Mivtzar, Magdiel and Iram. Since the word ‘of’ is normally not used in Hebrew, the following is another way that I could render these texts:


Aloof of Timna, aloof of Alvah, aloof of Yetet, aloof of Aholibamah, aloof of Elah, aloof of Pinon, aloof of Kenaz, aloof of Teman, aloof of Mivtzar, aloof of Magdiel, and aloof of Iram.


2. The last verse states, “Esau, father of Edom.” The text previously stated that Esau was Edom. Explain this. Esau was Edom (the person), and Esau was the father of the race called Edom! This is like saying that Jacob was Israel, and Jacob is the father of Israel (the race).


3. Go through this chapter, and string together the names that are in this chapter. What types of statements and what information appear?


I strung the proposed meanings of the names together. I found much repetition. I then went through to eliminate repetition, and to sort according to what I had learned about the order of End Times events.


The following is what I propose. Some things need explaining; I will explain in detail if you ask. I have separated the sections with subtitles.


Babylon: The Situation

Red merchant is her witness: hot strength. “My mighty one is fine gold, her witness; spice!”


Contention from papa is iniquity, a garment of her vinedresser.


Goat Kid: The Situation

Goat kid is a cave dweller! Goat kid is red.


The Plea

“Where is Yah?”


“What will Mighty One well do?” He is driving away waters of gold!


The Command

“South,” He says.


They ascended her!

“Envelop, my cave dweller! Cave dwellers… Envelop! Shower dye!”

My south is the lover He isolated. “South, enfortress!”


They shepherded Mighty One.

The Second Plea

Asked are boulevards of the river.

Lord, favour a mouse. Majesty, groan!

The Response

He fattened. He helped their threshing, cave dweller. Their threshing is wooded.

These, turning, He acquired/he sprinkled, His oversight: bald. He will hide bald, Hairy!

He will give my tent a high place! My tent is a high place He will cause dye to be made. I will ululate! Fattened, my tent is a high place He answered/humbled!

Mighty One shall heaken: fruitfulnesses.

Thou wilt restrain “my mighty one is fine gold,” lick-lap people. Thou wilt restrain!

The Coming

He penetrated! Sunrise is over there from this spice! Yehovah shall hollow out a sunrise in her tribulation, their haste!

The Judgment

Fattened… Their desire is a fire in them. Their remainder is their he lamb. He helped their growing old, their trembling, their reeling.

He answered/humbled: red! He caused discomfiture! He makes descend a heap of confusion of his lip, their lust. He swallowed; he burned red: an adjudication to come!

The Third Plea

Shower ascension!


My Teller is Mighty One! Their city is red!

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