What Does the Bible mean by
Under the Law?
Table of Contents
|Introduction||Under Methods of Living and Thinking|
Matthew 1:22 Now all this was done, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the Lord by the prophet.
The expression, “of the Lord,” takes the Greek word hupo that has the following acceptations as its main flavour: by, under. Take the above text and place this in:
Matthew 1:22 Now all this was done, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken under the Lord by the prophet.
The reason why I used under instead of by is because the word by is a different word in Greek, and is used in this verse. The word by is dia, meaning via. Thus, this verse would be better rendered,
Matthew 1:22 Now all this was done, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken under the Lord via the prophet.
What does under mean? Well, I considered this. This paper looks at all texts I found that use under as a separate Greek word. There are also compounds that use it; I didn’t research these.
The true motivator of this paper is the use of the expression, “under the law.” I desired to know what this meant.
Regarding the categories: Many will be mixed. I will still speak of each use of under. I have chosen one category when several usages occur in the same text block.
Under All Types of Angels
Luke 6:18 And they that were vexed under unclean spirits: and they were healed.
Those folks were under the ‘care’ of the unclean spirits. Those spirits hassled them and made life miserable. The only way for them to be practically removed from the sway of the unclean spirits was to be healed.
Acts 5:16 There came also a multitude of the surrounding cities unto Jerusalem bringing sick folks and those who were vexed under unclean spirits. And they (everyone) were healed.
When folks are possessed by demons, they are under the powerful sway of the demons. They are not under the authority of those demons, but are rather yielding to the powerful influence of them. A demon cannot be an authority in the true sense over a human, since humans are always higher in rank than demons. If humans yield to them, however, the behaviour is like a switch in authority, like a general who hearkens to the ideas of a corporal.
Under an Angel or Angels in General
Luke 2:21 And when eight days were accomplished for the circumcising of the child, His name was called ‘Yeshua’ Who was so named under the angel before he was conceived in the womb.
The angel was given the responsibility of expressing the name to give to the baby Yeshua.
Luke 16:22 And it came to pass that the beggar died, and was carried under the angels into Abraham’s bosom: the rich man also died, and was buried.
The angels were given the right and responsibility to carry this man from his body to Avraham’s bosom. They did their task.
Under the Devil
Matthew 4:1 Then Yeshua was led up under the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted under the devil.
Yeshua was led up under the authority and command of the Spirit of Yehovah. He was sent to be tempted under the authority and command of the devil. Though He was temporarily under the devil’s oversight, that didn’t mean that Yeshua was to obey him. Instead, He had to refuse to obey him and refuse to do wrong. The devil had no power to cause Him to do anything.
Mark 1:13 And He was there in the wilderness forty days, tempted under Satan. And He was with the wild beasts. And the angels ministered unto Him.
Yeshua was tempted under Satan’s command and authority. Yeshua Himself was not under Satan’s command and authority, but rather He was placed there so that Satan could use the authority Yehovah gave Satan to test Yeshua.
Luke 4:1 And Yeshua being full of the Holy Spirit returned from Jordan. And He was led by the Spirit into the wilderness, 2being tempted under the devil forty days.
This is another text that refers to Yeshua’s being under the devil’s authority to tempt, command to tempt, and power to tempt. He never was under the authority, command or power of the devil in any other way (unless the text specifies).
Luke 8:29 (For he had commanded the unclean spirit to come out of the man. For oftentimes it had caught him: and he was kept bound with chains and in fetters; and he brake the bands, and was driven under the devil into the wilderness.)
This man was under the authority and sway of this demon. He was not a free agent.
Acts 10:37 “Ye know that word that was published throughout all Judaea. And it began from Galilee, after the baptism that John preached 38how God anointed Yeshua of Nazareth with the Spirit of the Holy [One] and with power, Who went about doing good and healing all who were oppressed under the devil. For God was with Him.”
When the devil is able to directly act on a person, that person is under the devil—that is, under the sway, influence, and results of the devil’s interactions.
2 Corinthians 2:9 For I also did write to this end—that I might know the proof of you, whether ye are obedient in all things. 10To whom ye forgive anything, I also. For if I forgave anything, I forgave it to whom I forgave it for your sakes in the person of Messiah 11lest an advantage will be taken of us under Satan. For we are not ignorant of his devices.
Paul himself had no right to express forgiveness for another who was offended except that Paul was a prophet. A true prophet quotes Yehovah; Paul was a true prophet. Thus, he expressed Messiah’s forgiveness through prophecy.
Satan himself watches communities of Saints. If they do wrong, Satan will take advantage as if he is an authority over them. (He accuses the brethren, the Israelis, on a regular basis. It doesn’t matter that he is lower in rank than a human; he can speak of justice to Yehovah. When the Israelis sin, he is quick to apprise Yehovah of that sin to see if Yehovah will twist justice for the sake of Israel, or if He will do to Israel according to His justice. That puts Israel in a continuously precarious position with Yehovah.
2 Timothy 2:26 And they (who are taken captive under him at his will) may recover themselves out of the snare of the devil.
The devil, in this text, has captives; they are under the devil—that is, they are trapped and in his grip and authority. Please notice that they can recover themselves out of that snare! Such a man who was demon-possessed intentionally came to meet Yeshua, though the demons did not like this meeting at all:
Luke 8:26 And they arrived at the country of the Gadarenes that is over against Galilee. 27And when He went forth to land, there met him a certain man from the city who had devils a long time, and wore no clothes. And he didn’t abide in a house, but among the tombs. 28When he saw Yeshua, he shouted and fell down before Him. And he said with a loud voice, “What have I to do with thee, Yeshua, Son of God most high? I beseech thee, torment me not!” 29(For He had commanded the unclean spirit to come out of the man. For it had oftentimes caught him. And he was kept bound with chains and in fetters. And he broke the ropes and was driven under the devil into the wilderness.) 30And Yeshua asked him, saying, “What is thy name?” And he said, “Legion!” (For many devils were entered into him.) 31And they besought Him that He would not command them to go out into the deep. 32And there was a herd of many swine feeding there on the mountain. And they besought Him that He would permit them to enter into them. And he permitted them. 33Then the devils went out of the man and entered into the swine. And the herd violently ran down a steep place into the lake, and were drowned. 34When they who fed saw what was done, they fled and went and told in the city and in the country. 35They then went out to see what was done. And they came to Yeshua. And they found the man out of whom the devils were departed sitting at the feet of Yeshua, clothed, and in his right mind. And they were afraid. 36 Also, they who saw told them by what means he that was possessed of the devils was healed. 37Then the whole multitude of the country of the Gadarenes round about besought Him to depart from them. For they were taken with great fear. And He went up into the ship and returned back again.
Revelation 6:8 And I looked. And behold, a pale horse. And his name that sat on him was Death. And Hades followed with him. And power was given unto them over the fourth part of the earth to kill in sword and in hunger and in death, and under the beasts of the earth.
Power was given to these two fallen angels: Death and Hades (Sheol) over one fourth of the earth. They had three means of killing: in sword (warfare), in hunger (famine) and in death. They also had a fourth means: under the beasts (animals) of the earth. The beasts were given authority and power to kill humans. (The text is in the past tense. The reader must not assume that it has already happened; much of Biblical prophecy is in the past tense, since the Bible is as a book written during the Millennium. It is an infallible history book written before the history occurs.)
1 Corinthians 10:9 And we are not to tempt Messiah as some of them also tempted, and were destroyed under serpents. 10And ye shall not murmur as some of them also murmured, and were destroyed under the Destroyer.
Their destruction wasn’t physically under snakes or the Destroyer; they were destroyed when they were placed under the power of the snakes and the Destroyer. Yehovah sent killing serpents. They bit; folks died. The serpents didn’t have to physically come on top of them for them to be killed; a snakebite was enough. Yehovah gave the serpents power to kill and the assignment to do so; they obeyed. Thus, the Israelis were under the power and authority of the serpents. Had the text read, “And were destroyed by serpents,” that would have given the impression that this was a natural phenomenon with the intensity turned up, but natural nevertheless. (Who is this Destroyer?)
John 10:14 “I am the good shepherd. And I know mine. And I am known under mine.”
This is akin to saying, “They under my sheep know me.” The sheep thus have sway of those who are under the sheep—under their sway, authority, etc. This happened with Paul as he traveled. Those who came under his sway, including the Roman guard, knew Yeshua because of Paul’s characterization of Him.
Acts 24:21 I am called in question touching the resurrection of the dead under you this day.
Paul knew he was under the authority and jurisdiction of Felix and his government. (The pronoun you is always plural in the Bible.)
Acts 25:14 And when they had been there many days, Festus declared Paul’s cause unto the king, saying, “There is a certain man left in bonds under Felix…”
Felix had jurisdiction.
1 Corinthians 10:1 Moreover, brethren, I would not that ye should be ignorant, how that all our fathers were under the cloud, and all passed through the sea…
Being under the cloud sounds like a physical location. However, this paper is exploring this and finding that it most often refers to authority, governance, etc. They were not just physically under the cloud; that cloud was the physical Spirit of Yehovah in visible form. The same things that Yeshua promised the Spirit of God would do once He left were done for the Israelis by that cloud.
Matthew 22:31 “But as touching the resurrection of the dead, have ye not read what was spoken unto you under God?”
This continues to show that the words of the prophets are given to the prophets under the authority, power and command of God.
Luke 1:26 And in the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent under God unto a city of Galilee, named Nazareth.
Gabriel the messenger was sent under the authority and command of God to deliver a message.
Acts 10:33 I therefore immediately sent to thee. And thou hast done well that thou art come. Now, therefore, we are all present here before God to hearken-to all things that are commanded thee under God.
This, again, shows the responsibility of an assignment given by one higher in rank.
Acts 10:40 God raised Him up the third day and openly showed Him—41not to all the people, but unto witnesses previously chosen under God—even to us, who did eat and drink with Him after He rose from the dead. 42And He commanded us to preach unto the people and to testify that it is He Who was ordained under God the Judge of alive and dead.
Those witnesses were chosen under God’s authority just as Yeshua was ordained under God’s authority.
Romans 13:1 Let every soul be subject unto the higher powers. For there is no power but is from [orginates from] God. The powers that be are appointed under God.
Yehovah appointed those powers and the persons who hold those positions. This has been true throughout history. Yehovah appointed Nero and Hitler as well as Nebuchadnezzar and the various pharaohs. His appointments have nothing to do with what they themselves did with the positions they were given. Yehovah is not responsible for the sin of any person. Yehovah knew. That does not make Him responsible for sin. He set the appointment knowing what those figures would do. That does not bring Him into guilt. Every leader that has been chosen has been also commanded to do good, to benefit. Yehovah did not give them a choice to do good or bad. He gave a command and no choice regarding ethics or morality. They had many choices and options within the bounds of good ethics and morality; many determined to violate and do violence, contrary to commands. Yehovah knew they would. Yet, He still gave them opportunity to do right. Many died under the hands of murderous evildoers. That wasn’t because Yehovah ordained them to do evil; it was because they were evil, but Yehovah gave them opportunity to do well. They ignored or hated the command of Yehovah. If Yehovah were guilty because He knew in advance, He would be responsible for every sin on this planet. He is not. Yet, many who are bitter will conclude otherwise, and Yehovah does not stop them from being in violation due to their bitterness; they are just like those evil rulers that they protest!
Romans 15:15 Nevertheless, brethren, I have written the more boldly unto you in some sort, as putting you in mind because of the grace that is given to me under God.
The main point of our citing this text is that grace is given to Paul under the authority and dictates of God. Since grace is a fervent, burning zeal by which one is actuated, Paul was given that under the hand and ruling of God so that he could do good and not evil.
1 Corinthians 2:12 Now we have received—not the spirit of the world, but—the spirit that is of God so that we shall know the things that are freely given to us under God.
Those things under God are freely given. God is in charge; He is the authority figure whose has items and abilities to give.
1 Corinthians 7:25 Now I have no commandment from Yehovah concerning virgins. Yet I give my judgment as one who has obtained favour to be faithful under Yehovah.
Yehovah favoured Saul when He confronted him and gave him an assignment before Saul even knew Who He was. The purpose of that confrontation, among other purposes, was so that Saul would be faithful under the authority and command of Yehovah.
1 Corinthians 8:3 But if any man loves God, the same is known under Him.
A person who truly loves God will be known as being under God.
2 Corinthians 1:3 Blessed is God—even the Father of our Lord Messiah Yeshua, the Father of wombings and the God of all consolation 4Who consoles us in all our Tribulation so-that we will be able to console them who are in any Tribulation via the consolation wherewith we ourselves are consoled under God.
We have had the expression, “under God,” elsewhere. This refers to a position in which He is in authority and is demonstrating His power and works; the others are in a position subservient to Him and therefore in obedience to Him.
Galatians 4:9 But now, after ye have known God, or rather are known under God, how do ye turn again to the weak and beggarly elements unto which ye desire to be in bondage again?
If they are known under God, they are identified as being slaves and subservient to God. The idea of again returning to the first things of kindergarten in order to become slaves of the kindergarten teacher makes no sense. A person who has been graduated is ready to live and to work. Folks who want to return to kindergarten make fools of the teacher and the teaching.
These non-Jewish folks wanted or were taught to become kindergarten learners of the Torah rather than living by the faith that would be part of being a graduated student. This made no sense since they had learned what was necessary regarding faith and had believed—if they had believed at all. Stepping backward would prove that they hadn’t come to faith. They were in pursuit of starting all over again as sinners and babies.
1 Thessalonians 1:4 …knowing, brethren beloved, your election under God.
1 Thessalonians 2:4 But as we accounted under God to be put in trust with the gospel, even so we speak; not as pleasing men, but God, Who tries our hearts.
These two texts again show that God is the One who is the authority and Who did the placing and the assigning.
Hebrews 5:4 And no man takes this honour unto himself, but he that is called under God, as was Aaron.
God did the calling; those who respond to His authority and calling are classified as under Him. Thus, “One nation under God” is truly false in the Biblical manner.
Hebrews 5:9 And being made perfect, He [Yeshua] became the Author of everlasting salvation unto all them who obey Him, 10called under God, a High Priest after the order of Melchisedec.
Yeshua Himself was called and was placed with Yehovah the Father being Yeshua’s authority. Thus, Yeshua was under Yehovah, though He is Yehovah.
Hebrews 12:5 And ye have forgotten the exhortation that speaks unto you as unto children, “My son, don’t despise thou the chastening of Yehovah nor weary when thou art rebuked under Him.”
Yehovah will both chasten and rebuke Israel as a son. He is over the teaching of that son. Israel is under His hand.
2 Peter 1:17 For he received honour and glory from God the Father when there came such a voice to him under the Excellent Glory, “This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.”
The Excellent Glory is a person Who spoke from the cloud and Who administered the Truth, “This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.” The administrator is over those to whom he administers and ministers even if that position is temporary.
Matthew 11:27 “All things are delivered unto me under my Father.”
Yeshua is declaring that Yehovah the Father has the authority and the right and power to command.
Matthew 20:23 And He says unto them, “Ye shall indeed drink of my cup, and be baptized with the baptism with which I am baptized. But to sit on my right hand and on my left is not mine to give, but for whom it is prepared under my Father.”
Yehovah the Father is the authority.
Luke 10:22 All things are delivered to me under my Father.
Yeshua was definitely under the authority of Yehovah the Father. This has confused ‘Jehovah’s Witnesses’ who think that this proves that ‘Jesus’ is far less than Yehovah the Father in every way. They cannot see or acknowledge that God Himself could possibly set Himself under another even for temporary purposes. Thus, they must remove the possibility of ‘Jesus’ being deity. They do not understand the power, authority, or character of God, and thus limit Him to what they think God would do.
John 14:21 “He who has my commandments and guards them, he it is who loves me. And he who loves me shall be loved under my Father. And I will love him. And I will manifest myself to him.”
This text is most bizarre. It declares that a person who has Yeshua’s commandments and guards them automatically is a lover of Yeshua. The person does not have to even know who Yeshua is. Paul was in that state when he was chasing Yeshua. The next statement declares that such a person shall be loved, showing a future state. That person shall be loved under Yeshua’s Father—that is, under His authority and under His command. Thus, those who fear Yehovah will love these folks; they are under Yehovah’s authority and command. On top of that, Yeshua will love that person, again showing a future state. Yeshua will later directly show Himself to that person, usually physically appearing. He did that to Paul when He said to Paul, “Why art thou chasing me?”
1 Corinthians 11:32 But when we are judged, we are chastened under the Lord, that we should not be condemned with the world.
This greatly differs from being chastened by the Lord. By indicates who is doing the chastening. Under shows who is the authority; He may use others to do the chastening.
2 Thessalonians 2:13 But we under the Lord are always bound to confess to God for you, beloved brethren, because God has chosen you to salvation from the beginning through sanctification of the Spirit and belief of the Truth.
Those who are “under the Lord” are under Yeshua—that is, they both believe in Him and are under His authority and teaching. They are therefore slaves of righteousness and slaves of Yeshua. They are bound to confess to God for these Thessalonian Saints because God chose them to Salvation by the two means: sanctification of the Spirit, that is, the Spirit of Yehovah causing a transfer of ownership from adam and worldliness to Yeshua, and belief of the Truth—that is, faith in Yeshua Who is the Truth.
Luke 2:26 And it was revealed unto him under the Holy Spirit that he will not see death before he had seen Yehovah’s Messiah.
The Spirit of Yehovah took direct, personal authority to tell this man that he will not see death before seeing Yehovah’s Messiah. No prophet or angel was sent. This was direct.
Acts 13:4 So they departed unto Selevkia being sent forth under the Spirit of the Holy [One]. And they sailed to Cyprus from thence.
The Spirit of Yehovah assigned them to go to Selevkia.
2 Peter 1:21 For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man; but holy men of God spoke as they were moved under the Spirit of the Holy-[One].
The Spirit of Messiah was the Commander over these holy men of God.
Luke 5:15 But so much the more went there a fame abroad about Him. And great multitudes came together to hear and to be healed under Him from their infirmities.
These multitudes came to be placed under Him in the same way that a person places himself under a physician and the physician’s care.
Luke 9:7 Now Herod the tetrarch heard of all that was done under him: and he was perplexed, because that it was said under some, that John was risen from the dead.
The first ‘under’ has to do with the works and ministry of Yeshua, and the things that Yeshua did. Those things together were all that was done under Yeshua—that is, under the authority and working of His ministry.
The second ‘under’ has to do with other teachers who claimed that John was risen from the dead. Those who held to their teaching or their claims believed that he was raised from the dead.
Luke 13:17 And when He had said these things, all his adversaries were ashamed. And all the people rejoiced for all the glorious things that were done under Him.
Yeshua performed miracles, and those miracles were done under Him—that is, under His authority and power, as well as His teachings.
Luke 23:8 And when Herod saw Yeshua, he was exceedingly glad. For he was desirous to see Him from sufficiency, because he had heard many things concerning Him. And he hoped to have seen some miracle done under Him.
Herod saw Yeshua as a performer. A performer has an audience that is under the sway of the performer and magician. Thus, Herod desired to be under Yeshua in His miracle-working audience.
Philippians 3:12 …not as though I had already attained or were already perfect. But I follow after, though I shall seize that for which I also am seized under Messiah Yeshua.
Paul is walking perfectly at this time. Yet, the issue isn’t that he is walking perfectly; it is rather that he follows after the goal and will seize it by properly running in the same manner that Yeshua seized him for Yeshua’s purposes. A person who walks perfectly before Yehovah doesn’t have time to consider his or her perfection, but instead must continue in the race so that he or she won’t trip by looking backward or staring at his or her own navel.
3 John 1:12 Demetrius hath good report under all men and under the Truth Himself. Indeed, and we also bear record. And ye know that our record is true.
All men and the Truth report over Demetrius, and they witness that the man does well and right.
Philippians 1:27 Only your conversation shall be as it becomes the gospel of Messiah so-that I may hear of your affairs whether I come and see you or else am absent, so-that ye shall stand fast in one spirit with one mind, striving together for the faith of the gospel 28and terrified in nothing under your adversaries, which is an evident demonstration of perdition to them, but to you of salvation, and that of God.
The adversaries will be predominant in this situation in a physical manner. They will not be predominant in a mental manner, since they will be unsuccessful in terrifying these Saints.
Hebrews 12:1 Therefore, seeing we are also compassed about with so great a cloud of witnesses, we shall lay aside every weight and the sin that does so easily beset. And we shall run the race that is set before us with patience, 2looking unto Yeshua the Author and Finisher of faith Who endured the cross for the joy that was set before Him, despising the shame. And He is set down at the right hand of the throne of God. 3For consider Him Who endured such contradiction under sinners against Himself lest ye be wearied and tire in your minds.
Yeshua placed Himself under human leadership and rulership while always being faithful to His mission and assignments given by Yehovah, and refusing to sin while doing the righteousness He had to do to accomplish His purposes.
Acts 12:5 Peter was therefore kept in prison. But prayer was made without ceasing under the congregation unto God for him.
The congregation ‘umbrellad’ over Peter in this case, praying for him.
Acts 15:3 And being brought on their way under the assembly, they passed through Phenice and Samaria, declaring the conversion of the races. And they caused great joy unto all the brethren. 4And when they were come to Jerusalem, they were received under the assembly and the apostles and elders. And they declared all things that God had done with them.
The assembly took folks in, and this became as an enclosure for those folks, taking care of their needs. Thus, they came under the aid and enjoyment of the assembly.
Ephesians 2:11 Therefore remember that ye, in time past Gentiles in the flesh who are called Uncircumcision under that which is called the Circumcision in the flesh made by hands…
These Saints used to be Gentiles—that is, of the races. They are no longer. They are not Jewish, either. They are sons and daughters of Avraham, having the same faith and Hope as Avraham, and the one promise of the Spirit of God, the resurrection of the dead. They were called uncircumcision, but truly foreskins by the group that is called Circumcision in the flesh—referring to the Jews who recognized the importance of circumcision. The use of the term foreskin to describe folks is found in ‘Old Testament’ texts more often than one might know. The following text is an example:
1 Samuel 17:36 Thy servant slew both the lion and the bear. And this uncircumcised [literally, foreskin] Palestinian shall be as one of them, seeing he has defied the armies of the living God.
The use of the term foreskin to described uncircumcised Gentiles is both common and appropriate in the Bible, especially when describing a person whose life is vile/immoral on top of these other things. These folks were called this under those who were physically circumcised and who had contempt for those particular Gentiles, as David did regarding Goliath.
Luke 17:20 And when He was interrogated under the Pharisees when the kingdom of God should come, He answered them. And He said, “The kingdom of God cometh not with observation…”
Yeshua was at that moment under the jurisdiction of the Pharisees. They were interrogating Him to find what had happened.
Acts 4:36 And Yosi, who was surnamed Bar Navi under the apostles (which being interpreted is Son of Prophecy), a Levite, and of the country of Cyprus…
The apostles together gave Yosi that surname, having the right of friendship and love to call him by a nickname, or this case, a surname. They saw him as a son of prophecy because his character was like what they knew prophesies described the Israelis in the End Times. He was also a Levite.
Jude 1:17 But, beloved, remember ye the words that were previously spoken under the apostles of our Lord Messiah Yeshua…
The apostles (missionaries) infallibly spoke words. Those words were under them, since they could refrain from saying them, or they could say them. They were responsible (and credited) for the words they spoke.
Acts 15:40 And Paul chose Silas. And he departed, being recommended under the brethren unto the grace of God.
The brethren, then, could recommend or not. Anyone who was recommended by them had come under their judgment to recommend.
Acts 16:1 Then he came to Derbe and Lystra. And behold, a certain disciple was there named Timotheus, the son of a certain woman who was a Jewess. And he believed. And his father was Greek 2who was witnessed under the brethren that were at Lystra and Iconium. 3Paul desired to have him go forth with him. And he took. And he circumcised him because of the Yehudeem that were in those quarters. For they all knew that his father was Greek. 4And as they went through the cities, they delivered them the decrees (that were ordained under the apostles and elders who were at Jerusalem) to guard. 5And so were the assemblies established in the faith. And they daily increased in number. 6Now when they had gone throughout Phrygia and the region of Galatia, and were forbidden under the Spirit of the Holy-[One] to preach the word in Asia, 7they assayed to go into Bithynia after they were come to Mysia. But the Spirit did not permit them.
These verses use under to show authority, sway, or some type of relationship. It is not a locational device in these verses.
Romans 15:24 Whensoever I take my journey into Spain, I will come to you. For I trust to see you in my journey and to be brought on my way thitherward under you, if first I be somewhat filled with yours.
This text is worded in a way that would be difficult for some modern readers to understand. I will give a more literal rendering:
Romans 15:24 literally, with the pertinent part of the text: For I am hoping to see you, journeying through, and to be sent forward there under you, if first I will be filled to some degree from yours.
Paul desires to be sent on the rest of his journey after coming under the roof, fellowship, and participation of these folks: to come under them. He will be relying on them to open a place for him and to provide what is good for a traveler.
1 Corinthians 1:11 For it hath been declared unto me concerning you, my brethren, under them of Chloe, that there are contentions among you.
Chloe was a woman whose name was associated with a group. Those of Chloe reported to Paul concerning the Corinthian congregation and its several contentions that were tearing apart the congregation. This report was therefore under the authority and reputation of those folks of Chloe.
2 Corinthians 1:15 And in this confidence, I was previously minded to come unto you so-that ye will have a second benefit 16and to pass by you into Macedonia, and to come again out of Macedonia unto you, and to be brought on my way under you toward Judaea.
Paul desired to be ‘under’ their roof, fellowship, and participation while travelling. It is the same as coming ‘under’ their umbrella.
2 Corinthians 2:6 Sufficient to such a man is this punishment that was inflicted under many.
Many went together and dealt with this one person. Thus, what he suffered was under their authority and their pressure.
2 Corinthians 3:2 Ye are our epistle written in our hearts, known and read under all men, 3manifestly declared to be the epistle of Messiah ministered under us, written—not with ink, but—with the Spirit of the living God; not in tables of stone, but in fleshy tables of the heart.
What is the timing of this text? This must be future. All men didn’t know about these folks in the past.
If this epistle (letter) is known and read under all men, that means that it is being considered by these folks looking at it critically. In the same way, those who minister are ‘over’ those to whom they minister, even if regular rank is reversed. (Thus, a private in the military can minister to a general; during that time, the general is under the ministry of the private.)
2 Corinthians 8:18 And we have sent the brother whose praise is in the gospel throughout all the congregations with him, 19and not only, but who was also chosen under the congregations to travel with us with this grace that is administered under us to the glory of the same Lord, and of your ready mind 20avoiding this, that no man should blame us in this abundance that is administered under us.
The congregations had authority to choose; this brother was chosen under the authority of that set of congregations. Paul and his companions also had authority, power and responsibility to minister to others. They administered a gift. That means that they gave a gift to those who needed it. The gift consisted of a physical item—probably currency, so that the recipients could purchase what they badly needed.
1 Thessalonians 2:14 For ye, brethren, became followers of the Congregations of God in Messiah Yeshua that are in Judaea. For ye also have suffered like things under your own countrymen even as they under the Yehudeem 15who both killed the Lord Yeshua and their own prophets, and have persecuted us. And they don’t please God. And they are contrary to all men 16forbidding us to speak to the races so-that they might be saved, to always fill up their sins. For the wrath is come upon them to the uttermost.
This text, like so many others, is an End-Times text that sounds like a historic text. This group forbids the Israelis from speaking to the races regarding Salvation. For that cause, wrath has come upon them to the uttermost, and the uttermost is the Tribulation. This was not occurring in Paul’s day. Paul himself was never forbidden to speak to the Gentiles; he did that on a regular basis. Yet, this future group will be very much like the subgroup of the Yehudeem, a group of Israelis that called itself ‘the Jews’ and that maintained the strongest and highest position of ethical/moral rulership in Israel. This group in Yeshua’s day included some were greatly feared Yehovah and believed in Yeshua in the fullest, truest, and most righteous sense, including Nicodemus. It also included some who desired to be in the ‘in group’ and who did physical actions to keep themselves looking righteous. This group had another fraction: those who were terrified of losing their positions and who loved the open accolades and praises of fellow Jews in their group. This last bunch was willing to commit murder for the ‘greater good of Israel,’ but really for the maintenance of their own positions. They will have an equivalent future group that will rule in Israel before the Tribulation begins.
Considering all the members of the group known as ‘the Yehudeem’ as evildoers is akin to claiming that all Christians are evil because there are some who would murder to maintain their positions in Christianity. Most Christians are groupies, and don’t care about what the Bible says; they want to be in the ‘in group.’ A very few Christians truly hold the faith and are born of God.
The Yehudeem wielded great authority and power in Israel in history, and will do the same in the future.
Hebrews 2:3 How shall we escape if we neglect so great a salvation that began to be spoken by the Lord at the first, and was confirmed unto us under them that heard …
Those who heard confirmed that Salvation unto the Israelis. Thus, the Salvation was confirmed under them—that is, under their testimony. This use of under has to do with a person’s or group’s speaking with those whom they are addressing being in the position of listening, whether they believe it or not. This is classified as being under the speech.
Acts 4:11 This is the stone that was set at nothing under you builders, that is become the head of the corner. 12And there isn’t salvation in any other. For there is no other name given among men in which we must be saved under the heavens.
The materials that workers use to build are under their usage and under their decisions. “Under the heavens” is locational.
Acts 20:3 And when they laid wait for him under the Jews as he was about to sail into Syria, he purposed to return through Macedonia.
That group of Yehudeem (a Jewish sect that considered themselves real Jews) gave authority to others to waylay him. Thus, they worked under the authority of this sect. (He went another way to escape.)
Acts 23:27 This man was taken under the Jews, and would have been killed under them. Then I came with an army and rescued him, having understood that he was a Roman.
This soldier testified how he changed Paul’s situation, taking him from under the power and authority of a mob, knowing he would have been killed under their hand.
Acts 23:30 And a plot being revealed to me under the Jews against the man, and I sent at once to thee, having charge of bonds, and also commanding to the accusers the things to say before thee being about him. Farewell.
This group of Yehudeem had plotted under their own authority to kill him.
Acts 26:2 “I think myself happy, king Agrippa, because I shall answer for myself this day before thee touching all the things whereof I am accused under the Jews…”
Had he said, “by the Jews,” the text would have been different. By saying under, however, he isn’t directly accusing the Jews of accusing him, but that he was accused while under their power and authority.
Acts 26:6 “And now I stand and am judged for the hope of the promise made under God unto our fathers 7unto which promise our twelve tribes hope to come, instantly serving God day and night, for which hope’s sake, king Agrippa, I am accused under the Jews.”
This shows the expression, “under God.” It is under His action, His authority, His power, that the promise was made. In a similar manner, Paul’s arrest was made under the action, authority and power of the Yehudeem.
2 Corinthians 11:24 I received forty stripes save one five times under the Jews.
Paul was arrested, tried, and beaten five separate times, receiving 39 stripes each time while in the custody of the group known as the Yehudeem. Thus, being in the custody of this group was being under this group. This particular text will especially explain the phrase, under the law.
Luke 21:20 And when ye shall see Jerusalem compassed under armies, then know that the desolation thereof is nigh.
An occupation or an attack is under the jurisdiction of an opposing army.
Acts 21:35 And when he came upon the stairs, so it was, that he was carried under the soldiers for the violence of the people.
He wasn’t physically carried under the soldiers, since they would have stepped on him. Instead, he was transported under the protection and authority of the soldiers.
Matthew 24:9 “Then they shall deliver you up to be humiliated. And they shall kill you. And ye shall be hated under all nations for the sake of My Name.”
Again, many Israelis will be placed under the jurisdiction, authority and power of all races during the Tribulation. Folks from all races will hate them even when they are in authority over the Israelis.
Luke 21:24 And they shall fall by the edge of the sword and shall be led away captive into all races. And Jerusalem shall be trodden down under the races until the times of the races are fulfilled.
This text definitely demonstrates the concept of under the authority or under the thumb. Jerusalem at our very time is no free city. The races tread on it even if they come as tourists. Many have no appreciation for Jerusalem as a city that will be under Yehovah and the Jews. They see the Israelis as occupiers.
Acts 10:22 And they said, “Cornelius the centurion, a righteous man and one who fears God and is of good report under all the race of the Jews, was warned from God under a holy angel to send for thee into his house and to hearken-to words from thee.”
The race of the Jews acts as one organism. This group reported regarding those under it. Though Cornelius was not Jewish, he was in a location where the Jews held sway. Thus, he came under the Jews even if he supposedly was over them. They reported very good things concerning him.
A holy angel was given the responsibility and assignment to warn Cornelius to send for Peter and to hearken to his words.
Luke 17:24 For as the lightning that lightens out of the one under the heavens shines unto the other under the heavens, so shall also the Son of man be in His day.
This text appears to be locational in its usage of under.
Acts 2:5 And there were Jews, devout men, dwelling in Jerusalem from every race under the heavens.
This text again shows location. This verse is a miniature of what will happen in the End Times.
Colossians 1:21 And yet He has now reconciled you (who were at one time alienated and enemies in mind by wicked works) 22in the body of His flesh through death to present you holy and unblameable and unreproveable in His sight 23if ye continue grounded and settled in the faith, and are not moved away from the Hope of the gospel to which ye have hearkened and which was preached to every creation that is under the heavens, of which I Paul am made a minister.
The expression, “under the heavens,” describes a location as we would expect. It also describes an authority with the heavens describing rulership. Yehovah’s throne is in the heavens and He rules from the heavens.
Acts 17:19 And they took him, and brought him unto Areopagus, saying, May we know what this new doctrine is, under which thou speakest?
Paul himself was speaking under the doctrine—that is, he received that doctrine, and was faithfully conveying it to others. He worked under the doctrine.
2 Peter 2:7 …and delivered righteous Lot, vexed under the filthy lifestyle of the wicked…
Lot was a resident of the city of Sodom. He knew the lifestyle of the folks from the edge, and how they attacked, and raped sojourners. He also knew that the majority of citizens of Sodom were not violent like this, but they also were not doing anything about what was occurring. What the citizens didn’t know would kill them! They didn’t know that Yehovah holds folks responsible for what they do, including ignoring the plight of sojourners in their midst. Lot determined to aid the two sojourners by bringing them to his home. When they brought violence and threat to his doorstep, he refused to give the sojourners over to them. He thus demonstrated his own righteousness. He was still under those wicked ones from the edge, since he lived in that city. He refused to do wrong, however.
John 8:9 And they who heard it went out one by one beginning at the eldest unto the last, being convicted under conscience. And Yeshua was left alone, and the woman standing in the midst.
There is no location that can be said to be under one’s conscience. They were convicted under the sway and power of conscience.
1 Corinthians 10:25 Whatsoever is sold in the bodega, eat, asking no question for conscience sake. 26For the earth is Yehovah’s and her fullness. 27If any of them who believe not bid you, and ye be disposed to go, eat whatsoever is set before you, asking no question for conscience sake. 28But if any man says unto you, “This is offered in sacrifice unto idols!” do not eat for his sake who showed it and for conscience sake. For the earth is Yehovah’s, and her fullness. 29Conscience, I say—not thine own, but of the other! For why is my liberty judged under another’s conscience? 30For if I am a partaker by grace, why am I evil spoken of for that for which I give thanks? 31Whether ye eat, therefore, or drink, or whatsoever ye do, do all to the glory of God. 32Don’t give an offence!—neither to the Jews nor to the Greeks, nor to the congregation of God 33even as I please all in all, not seeking my own profit, but that of many, that they may be saved.
Verse 29 uses under showing that the conscience that rules is the question. One person’s liberty cannot be judged by another person’s conscience. Yet, in this text, the other person’s conscience must prevail in certain circumstances. This isn’t judgment; it is appropriate consideration and circumspection. Being considerate of those around oneself is always right; the opposite will lead to harmful consequences and even death.
Matthew 3:3 For this is he that was spoken of under the prophet Isaiah, saying, “The voice of one crying in the wilderness: ‘Prepare ye the way of Yehovah! Make His paths straight!’”
The prophet was given a responsibility; the responsibility was under his hand, and he did it.
Matthew 3:6 And they were baptized under him in Jordan, confessing their sins.
These folks were baptized under the teaching and leadership of John.
Matthew 3:13 Then Yeshua comes from Galilee to Jordan unto John, to be baptized under him. 14But John forbad Him, saying, “I have need to be baptized under thee, and comest Thou to me?”
John and Yeshua had a discussion about authority. John thought that John himself should be immersed under Yeshua’s authority and rank not vice versa. Yeshua told him otherwise.
Matthew 27:35 And they crucified Him. And they parted His garments, casting lots so that it shall be fulfilled what was spoken under the prophet, “They parted my garments among them. And they cast lots upon my vesture.”
This future prophecy will be fulfilled during the Tribulation. This word was spoken under the responsibility and authority of the prophet who stated it.
2 Peter 3:2 …so-that ye will be mindful of the words that were previously spoken under the holy prophets…
The holy (owned) prophets spoke words, and gave teachings. Even the prophets had to study what they prophesied; they had no advantage over others who heard the words of the prophets. The words were spoken under the prophets—under their ministries.
Matthew 2:15 And [Yeshua] was there until the death of Herod so that it will be fulfilled what was spoken under Yehovah via the prophet, saying, “I have called my son out of Egypt.” 16Then Herod, when he saw that he was mocked under the wise men, was exceeding wroth, and sent forth, and slew all the children that were in Bethlehem, and in all the coasts thereof, from two years old and under, according to the time which he had diligently enquired of the wise men. 17Then was fulfilled that which was spoken under Jeremiah the prophet.
This will accord with “under the authority of,” or “under the auspices of” mentioned above. What Yehovah, the wise men, and Jeremiah did was to take action from the authority of their positions and responsibilities. This is akin to the statement, “by the authority vested in me.”
Matthew 6:2 Therefore, when thou doest thine alms, do not sound a trumpet before thee as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets so that they may have glory under men. Faith I say unto you, they have their reward!
Having “glory under men” means that men bestow importance on them. The authority for the glory/importance comes from men (as contrasted with authority from God).
Matthew 10:22 And ye shall be hated under all for the sake of My Name. But he who endures to the end shall be saved.
Being hated under all means that these ‘all’ will be in authority, rank and power over those who are the ‘ye,’ referring to the Israelis.
Matthew 14:8 And she, being previously instructed under her mother, said, “Give me here John Baptist’s head in a charger!”
This girl was under the authority, teaching and power of her mother.
Matthew 17:12 But I say unto you that Elijah is already come. And they didn’t know him. And they have done unto him whatsoever they willed. The Son of man shall also suffer in this manner under them.
This text makes the most sense if its timing is established as an End Times text. (Most texts are that way, and are not recognized as such by those who claim to be the strongest and straightest believers in the Bible.)
The Son of man, Yeshua, placed Himself under the authority and power of the Israelis for the purpose of being their sacrifice. Yet, He only did righteousness.
Matthew 19:12 “For there are some eunuchs who were so born from their mother’s womb. And there are some eunuchs who were made eunuchs under men. And there are eunuchs who have made themselves eunuchs for the sake of the kingdom of the heavens.”
Those who are made eunuchs under men, that is, under the authority and command of men, include Daniel, Azaryah, Mishael and Khananyah, etc.
Matthew 23:1 Then Yeshua spoke to the multitude and to His disciples, 2saying, “The scribes and the Pharisees sit in Moshe’s seat. 3All therefore whatsoever they bid you observe, observe and do. But don’t ye do after their works. For they say and do not. 4For they bind heavy and grievous-to-be-borne burdens, and lay on men’s shoulders, but they will not move them with one of their fingers. 5But they do all their works in order to be seen of men. They make their phylacteries broad and enlarge the borders of their garments. 6And they love the uppermost rooms at feasts and the chief seats in the synagogues 7and greetings in the markets and to be called under men, ‘My great one!’ ‘My great one!’”
Men take upon themselves the position, right, authority, power, and command to give honours to others. They give titles to their friends. This is not necessarily backed up by Yehovah, since Yehovah does not respect persons of men—that is, He does not honour human ranking systems.
Matthew 27:12 And when He was accused under the chief priests and elders, He answered nothing.
Yeshua was under the jurisdiction of the chief priests and elders during this part of His trial.
Mark 2:3 And they come unto Him, bringing one sick of the palsy who was borne under four.
Four persons had the responsibility of carrying Him.
Mark 5:1 And they came over unto the other side of the sea into the country of the Gadarenes. 2And when He was come out of the ship, immediately there met him a man out of the tombs with an unclean spirit 3who had dwelling among the tombs. And no man could bind him—no, not with chains, 4because he had been often bound with fetters and chains, and the chains had been plucked asunder under him, and the fetters broken in pieces! And none could tame him.
The chains that were under the usage of this man could not hold him. He was better than Houdini.
Mark 13:13 And ye shall be hated under all for the sake of My Name. But he that shall endure unto the end, the same shall be saved. 14But when ye shall see the abomination of desolation (spoken of under Daniel the prophet) standing where it ought not (let him that readeth understand), then let them that be in Judaea flee to the mountains.
The Israelis will be hated under the authority and power of all (referring to folks in the races).
Daniel the prophet spoke, and his prophecy was under his responsibility and authority.
Mark 16:9 Now when Yeshua was risen early the first day of the week, He appeared first to Mary Magdalene, out of whom He had cast seven devils. 10And she went and told them that had been with Him, as they mourned and wept. 11And they, when they had heard that He was alive and had been seen under her, believed not.
She is the one who reported seeing Him. Thus, the telling of the event was under her authority and responsibility.
Luke 2:18 And all they that heard wondered at those things that were told them under the shepherds.
The shepherds were given the responsibility of handling the information about the birth of the Messiah.
Luke 4:15 And He taught in their synagogues, being glorified under all.
All who heard Him saw His importance.
Luke 9:8 And under some, that Elias had appeared; and of others, that one of the old prophets was risen again.
Again, some believed the claim that Elijah had appeared. This was taught under (under the convincing or authority of) some teachers.
Luke 14:8 When thou art bidden under anyone to a wedding, sit not down in the highest room; lest a more honourable man than thou be bidden under him.
The first under shows the authority and the right of the one doing the bidding. That person is permitted and given the responsibility to call guests to the wedding. The second under is the same, but this time the one arranging the seating order has the authority to move folks higher or lower in the seating order.
Luke 21:16 And ye shall be betrayed both under parents and brethren and kinsfolks and friends. And shall they cause to be put to death from you. 17And ye shall be hated under all for my name’s sake.
Under in this verse has to do with relationships, not location. Those being put to death will be under the protection, or supposed protection of relationships of parents, brethren, kinsfolks and friends; but they won’t protect them, thinking that they are terrible doers of evil or are risking the lives of others by their faith in Yeshua. The result will be that relationships with all will prove of no value to protect them, since all will turn on them.
Acts 22:11 And when I could not see for the glory of that light, being led by the hand under them that were with me, I came into Damascus. 12And one Ananias, a devout man according to the law, having a good report under all the Jews who dwelt.
He was led by the hand under the guidance and leadership of those who were with him. There was also a devout Torah-following man who had a good reputation. All the Jews in that area reported of his good character. Their report was under them—that is, it was under their testimony.
Acts 23:10 And when there arose a great dissension, the chief captain, fearing lest Paul should have been pulled in pieces under them, commanded the soldiers to go down, and to take him by force from among them, and to bring him into the castle.
Paul was under the power of this mob. The chief captain determined to bring Paul under his own authority for Paul’s protection.
1 Corinthians 2:12 Now we have received—not the spirit of the world, but—the Spirit Who is of God so that we shall know the things that are freely given to us from God 13which things we also speak—not in the words that man’s wisdom teaches, but that the Spirit of the Holy-[One] teaches, comparing spiritual things with spiritual. 14But the natural man doesn’t receive the things of the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness unto him. And he cannot know because they are spiritually discerned. 15But He Who is Spiritual judges all things, yet He Himself isn’t judged under a man. 16For who has known the mind of Yehovah, and he will instruct Him? But we have the mind of the Messiah.
The One Who is Spiritual is Yehovah; is Yeshua; is the Spirit of Yehovah; He will never be judged under a man. Even when Pilate was placed to judge Yeshua, Pilate was being judged, and Pilate knew it. Pilate could not judge Yeshua, because he already knew that Yeshua was innocent. There is no benefit to judge one whom a judge knows is innocent. Instead, Pilate finally gave Yeshua over to those determined to do violence, and Pilate’s wife judged Pilate! (She was angry!) No person is capable of judging God.
1 Corinthians 4:3 But with me, it is a very small thing that I should be judged under you, or under man’s judgment. Indeed, I don’t judge my own self.
Whoever is acting as judge has folks under him who are being judged. Paul could be judged and was judged, but he knew that judgment wasn’t important, since the real judgment is by Yehovah.
1 Corinthians 14:24 But if all prophesy, and there enters one who doesn’t believe or one unlearned, he is convicted under all, he is judged under all.
All in this assembly together form a unit. When they speak, they will be speaking the words of Yehovah (see surrounding text). Those who enter who don’t believe or who don’t know what this faith is about will hear the speakers who will reveal the very secrets of the hearts of the guests. They will be convicted under the authority and ministry of all, and will be judged under the same (the authority and ministry). This conviction and judgment will not be like some vile and violent form of finger-pointing; Yehovah the Spirit will give words that will strike home to these guests in a very constructive way.
2 Corinthians 12:11 I am become a fool in glorying! Ye have compelled me! For I ought to have been commended under you. For I am behind the very chiefest apostles in nothing, though I am nothing.
This group had the position of being able to commend or to censure. They didn’t commend, and the Spirit of God through Paul did not appreciate that. The Corinthian congregation had a problem that is common. Instead of seeing the things that were good, the only consideration that was addressed was that which is lacking or bad. This wasn’t the true attitude of these folks; they took the letters sent by Paul very well, and were corrected, taking that correction. They seemed to be folks who were more in the ‘junior high’ category of maturity than they should have been.
The Greek word for commend literally is to stand with. These folks should have stood with Paul and with those who accompanied him rather than just voicing their complaints and troubles so that they didn’t even help him on his journey. He told them that he intentionally made certain to be of no charge to them, and they didn’t really offer to aid him. They were so interested in their own affairs that they overlooked aiding him when he came to them to benefit them. He didn’t desire their stuff, but he did desire that they give to the poor Saints in Jerusalem.
Galatians 5:15 But if ye bite and devour one another, take heed that ye are not consumed one under another.
The consumer is ‘on top of’ the one being consumed. This shows a relationship of a stronger conquering and overpowering a weaker.
Hebrews 3:4 For every house is built under someone, but He Who built all things is God.
The person doing the building is over what is being built. Thus, what is being built is under the builder.
Hebrews 7:7 And without all contradiction, the less is blessed under the better.
The better is the one who is capable of blessing. He lays his hands on the other (in the picture of blessing which has to do with kneeling), and therefore is over that person for the time of that blessing.
Hebrews 11:23 By faith Moses, when he was born, was hidden three months under his parents, because they saw he was a proper child. And they were not afraid of the king’s commandment.
This describes the protection that Moshe’s parents gave him.
1 Peter 2:1 Therefore laying aside all malice and all guile, and hypocrisies and envies, and all evil speakings, 2desire the sincere milk of the word as newborn babies so-that ye will grow by it 3(if so be ye have tasted that the Lord is gracious), 4a living precious Stone disallowed indeed under men but chosen by God, to Whom coming, 5ye also are built up a spiritual House as living stones, a holy priesthood to offer up spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God via Messiah Yeshua.
Men did not and would not choose that Stone that is Yeshua. They didn’t and wouldn’t see Him as precious and living, but as cursed and troublesome. Thus, men in the highest spiritual authority in Israel excluded Yeshua from consideration. They would not have Him as long as the administration was under them. (Some rulers in Israel knew Who He was and believed, however. They also did works showing this belief.)
Mark 5:25 And a certain woman who had an issue of blood twelve years, 26and had suffered many things under many physicians, and had spent all that she had, and was nothing bettered, but rather grew worse, 27when she had heard of Yehovah, came in the press behind, and touched His garment.
She was not located under the physicians, but was under their care and authority.
Luke 8:43 And a woman having an issue of blood twelve years, which had spent all her living upon physicians, neither could be healed under any…
She was under the care of these physicians. They could do nothing.
Mark 1:5 And there went out unto him all the land of Judaea and they of Jerusalem. And they were all baptized under him in the Jordan River, confessing their sins.
John was given authority from Yehovah to immerse the Israelis and to prepare for Yeshua.
Mark 1:9 And he was in those days. And Yeshua came from Nazareth of Galilee. And He was baptized under John in Jordan.
Yeshua Himself came under the authority of John to be immersed.
Luke 3:7 Then he said to the multitude that came forth to be baptized under him, “Generation of vipers! Who warned you to flee from the wrath to come?”
They had come to be immersed under John’s authority and instruction.
Luke 3:19 But Herod the tetrarch, being reproved under [John the Baptist] for Herodias his brother Philip’s wife, and for all the evils that Herod had done, 20added yet this above all, so that he shut up John in prison.
John thought that he had the authority, the right and the duty to reprove Herod. He didn’t, and he was dead wrong. He had no right. Herod was a murdering swine. He was also an authority set there by Yehovah. What John did cost him his life. John usurped his authority. The same perverted actions are done today by spiritually unintelligent, zealous so-called Christians. They bring accusations of sin against sinners. (That is akin to accusing a pig of oinking.) This will bring violent retribution at a future time. John’s error was in thinking that Yeshua was very close to setting up the Kingdom of God. John had Scriptural timings all wrong. Thus, John became bold, and lost his head.
Luke 7:30 But the Pharisees and lawyers rejected the counsel of God against themselves, not being baptized under him.
These Pharisees and lawyers rejected the authority of John as well as the counsel of God. John did not come up through the ranks. So, the Pharisees and lawyers of which this text speaks (not the majority, but an arrogant minority of Pharisees, and a group of lawyers) did not accept John as in rank in their groups. Thus, they rejected the teachings and preachings of John as if he were another radical cult in Israel with no Biblical backing.
Hebrews 9:19 For when every commandment had been spoken under Moses to all the people according to the Torah, he took the blood of calves and of goats, with water and scarlet wool and hyssop, and sprinkled both the book and all the people.
This describes Moshe’s administration.
Acts 13:45 But when the Yehudeem saw the multitudes, they were filled with envy. And they spoke against those things that were spoken under Paul, contradicting and blaspheming.
Paul gave speeches. This Jewish sect (not referring to the Jews at large) spoke against what Paul had declared. They didn’t like the draw Paul had for the multitudes that came under his sway.
Acts 16:14 And a certain woman named Lydia, a seller of purple, of the city of Thyatira, who worshipped God, heard whose heart the Lord opened, that she attended unto the things which were spoken under Paul.
Paul was a speaker; those listening were under his instruction.
Acts 17:13 But when the Jews of Thessalonica had knowledge that the word of God was preached under Paul at Berea, they came thither also, and stirred up the people.
This is the same as above.
Acts 24:26 He hoped also that money should have been given him under Paul, that he might loose him. Therefore he sent more often for him and communed with him.
This form of under can mean two things: in the place of and by the power of. The reader can read both of these meanings; they will fit. Either one would have gotten him his bribe money.
Acts 27:11 Nevertheless the centurion believed the master and the owner of the ship more than those things that were spoken under Paul.
Paul was the orator; the others were under (that is, in the hearing of and in the audience of) his oratory, though this man didn’t believe him.
Galatians 1:11 But I certify you, brethren, that the gospel that was preached under me is not after man.
This preaching was Paul’s assignment. Thus, he was over the preaching, and those to whom he preached were under him as he did this assignment. It is the same as a professor-student relationship.
Matthew 5:13 Ye are the salt of the land. But if the salt has lost his savour, with what shall it be salted? It is thenceforth good for nothing but to be cast out and to be foot-trodden under men. 14Ye are the light of the world. A city that is set on a hill cannot be hid. 15And men don’t light a candle and put it under a bushel, but on a candlestick. And it gives light unto all that are in the house.
In verse 13, being foot-trodden under men means that men will have the power and the means to tread it into the ground. Verse 15 uses “under a bushel,” directly using the proposed definition. The bushel itself is the container for the candle as if it is an authority over the candle. No one with sense lights a candle and puts it under the auspices of a bushel; why make a small light, then blot out its rays? That is senseless.
Matthew 8:8 The centurion answered and said, “Sir, I am not worthy that Thou should come under my roof. But only speak the word, and my servant shall be healed. 9For I am a man under authority, having soldiers under me. And I say to this man, ‘Go!’ and he goes, and to another, ‘Come!’ and he comes, and to my servant, ‘Do this!’ and he does it.”
This centurion understood concepts of authority. He stated, “I am not worthy that Thou should come under my roof.” He was speaking regarding authority: “under the authority” or “under the protection” of his roof. He was not denying Yeshua’s right to come under his roof, but rather was declaring that Yeshua was higher in rank, and that the centurion should rather come under Yeshua’s roof in terms of ranking officers. He explained this when he said, “I am a man under authority,” since he is under orders from those above him. A higher-ranking officer doesn’t come into the tent of a lower-ranking man to sit in front of his desk, but does the opposite: he calls for the lower-ranking man to come to his tent and sit or stand before his desk. The soldiers who are under him must stand at attention before him, and not vice versa.
Matthew 8:24 And, behold, there arose a great tempest in the sea, insomuch that the ship was covered under the waves. But He was asleep.
The waves were the boss; the ship was in the grip of those waves.
Matthew 23:37 “Jerusalem! Jerusalem that kills the prophets and stones them who are sent unto thee, how often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathers her chickens under wings, and ye would not!”
When this hen gathers chickens under wings, she is acting as their authority and protector.
Mark 4:21 And He said unto them, “Is a candle brought to be put under a bushel, or under a bed, and not to be set on a candlestick?”
Placing a candle or an oil lamp under the cover and authority of a bushel or a bed is senseless and dangerous.
Mark 4:30 And He said, “Whereunto shall we liken the kingdom of God? Or, with what comparison shall we compare it? 31Like a grain of mustard seed that is less than all the seeds that are in the land when it is sown in the land. 32But when it is sown, it grows and becomes greater than all herbs. And it shoots out great branches so that the fowls of the air will lodge under the shadow of it.”
This ‘kingdom of God’ is a monstrosity. It starts out with an impossible description: a grain of mustard seed that is less than, or small than all seeds. This, of course, is no natural mustard. Its seed is not even close to the smallest of herb seeds; many are smaller. But the parable isn’t describing what occurs in nature, but rather a freakish occurrence that will perfectly parallel the ‘kingdom of God’ in its monstrous and freakish proportions. Thus, smallest of all seeds in existence that are sown grows. It becomes greater than all herbs, and thus is larger than the largest banana, since the largest herb on earth is the banana. It then puts out branches, and these must be woody to tolerate the great weight and torque they will endure. So, this herb has morphed into a huge tree. The fowls of the air, typifying demons, will lodge under its shadow—that is, under the area of its sway and authority. Therefore, it will be exactly what gardener did not desire or intend, since he planted a garden for herbs, not a monster that overcame his and all his neighbours’ lands. This perfectly describes modern Christianity, as do several parables of the same nature. True Christianity was never resident in church buildings made of wood and stone. It was also not invasive, and it was no good place for demons. It could not grow large, since the number of those who are in faith is always far, far smaller than the number of those not in faith (with the exception of the times of the beginning of the Millennium).
Luke 7:6 Then Yeshua went with them. And when he was now not far from the house, the centurion sent friends to him, saying unto him, “Lord, trouble not thyself. For I am not worthy that thou shouldest enter under my roof. 7Therefore, neither thought I myself worthy to come unto thee. But say in a word, and my servant shall be healed. 8For I also am a man set under authority, having under me soldiers. And I say unto one, ‘Go!’ and he goeth; and to another, ‘Come!’ and he cometh; and to my servant, ‘Do this,’ and he doeth it.
The first is “under my roof.” That doesn’t speak of just a location, but a jurisdiction. This word therefore refers to some authority, not just to a location.
The second is “I am a man set under authority.” It indicates the hierarchy of rank. Again, it isn’t a physical location.
The third is “having soldiers under me.” This is again an issue of hierarchy, not of physical position. The expression, “under the law,” will fit the same category.
Luke 8:14 And that which fell among thorns are they, which, when they have heard, go forth, and are choked under cares and riches and pleasures of this life, and bring no fruit to perfection.
Thus, cares, riches and pleasures of this life become authorities and hold sway over these folks so that they are unable to have fruit that comes to ripeness. They may begin to bear fruit, and they have plenty, but none of it comes to ripeness.
Luke 11:33 No man, when he hath lighted a candle, putteth it in a secret place, neither under a bushel, but on a candlestick, that they which come in may see the light.
This text gives the appearance of location only: under a bushel. That does not mean that this word under is only a location or is only an issue of authority; it can be used for either and for both.
Luke 13:34 Jerusalem! Jerusalem that killest the prophets, and stonest them that are sent unto thee; how often would I have gathered thy children together, as a hen her brood under wings, and ye would not!
When a hen gathers her brood under wings, this is a location, but it is also an umbrella of protection. Therefore, she is the authority over her brood.
John 1:48 Nathanael saith unto him, “Whence knowest Thou me?” Yeshua answered and said unto him, “I saw thee when thou wast under the fig tree before Philip called thee.”
This is particular to location unless one considers the shadow of the fig tree as being like under the protection from sun.
Acts 8:6 And the people gave heed unto those things under which Philip spoke with one accord, hearing and seeing the miracles which he did.
Philip had a particular set of topics. Thus, those topics were under his speech.
Romans 3:13 Their throat is an open sepulchre. They have used deceit with their tongues. The poison of asps is under their lips.
While the poison is described locationally as being under their lips, the text describes that their lips rule over the poisons they deliver to others!
1 Corinthians 6:12 All things are lawful unto me, but all things are not expedient. All things are lawful for me, but I will not be dominated under any.
This particular text is very important for our understanding of the expression, under. Domination, authority over, mastering, ruling over, etc. all imply some form of rank in the life of another. One who is under may be a slave or a visitor, may be treated as an enemy or may be shown great love. Whoever receives the action of another is under that person whether the person desires it or not. If I receive a cup of water, I have received it under the giver. If I have received a fist in my face, I have received it under the striker.
One who is dominated under another is under that person’s power, authority, bonds, whatever. That person cannot freely act. A person who will not be dominated will act regardless of all physical constraints, determining to do what the person will do. If the person is tied hand and foot and the person desires to strike, the person will use his head. In other words, the person will not accept domination even if it means that the person will be hurt, damaged or killed. If a person is being tortured, and the person responds to the torturer with a contempt that ignores the torture, the person is refusing to be dominated. The person is still under the torturer, but that is only true of the person’s physical body; the person will behave as if free and not being dominated.
According to translations, Paul stated, “All things are lawful unto me.” What the Greek language indicates is that he said, “All things exist unto me.” Did he believe that he had the freedom to sin, and yet it was fine and lawful for him? Could he eat pork, and be guiltless before Yehovah? Is this what he was saying? That would set Scriptures in conflict with Scriptures. If he said, however, “All things exist unto me, but all things are not expedient. All things exist for me, but I will not be dominated under any,” he was indicating that there are many things in this world, and all are to advantage in their places. That doesn’t mean that taking advantage of them is expedient—that is it wise or even right. A man might see a beautiful chariot that belongs to his neighbour. Stealing it isn’t expedient. A person whose desires go for his neighbour’s property is dominated by that object as if it is a god. The same is true for pork and Paul. Pigs exist. Pig meat is edible. It is not expedient for Paul to eat pig meat, and he will not be dominated by the taste or smell of cooking pork. Every person is surrounded by things that exist and that are good in their own stations and places, but are not good for every person to use as the person wishes. Sodium Cyanide exists. It is very useful as a chemical reagent, and can be used to manufacture vital things in life. It is wise or expedient to drink it, however.
1 Timothy 6:1 As many servants as are under the yoke shall count their own masters worthy of all honour so-that the name of God and doctrine shall not be blasphemed.
Being under this yoke shows a relationship of master to slaves. An animal that is under a yoke is controlled by that yoke.
Matthew 11:7 And as they departed, Yeshua began to say unto the multitudes concerning John, “What did ye go out into the wilderness to see? A reed shaken under the wind?”
The wind has the power and authority over the reed, in this picture.
Matthew 14:24 But the ship was now in the midst of the sea, tossed under waves. For the wind was contrary.
Again, the waves were the boss.
Luke 7:24 And when the messengers of John were departed, he began to speak unto the people concerning John, “What went ye out into the wilderness for to see? A reed shaken under the wind?”
A reed that is shaken under the wind is under its power. We use by, but the word by only shows causation. Under, on the other hand, shows authority.
Acts 27:41 And falling into a place where two seas met, they ran the ship aground. And the forepart stuck fast, and remained unmoveable. But the hinder part was broken under the violence of the waves.
The violence of the waves ruled over the hind part of the ship!
James 3:4 Also behold the ships that, though so great and are driven under fierce winds, yet they are turned about under a very small helm, whithersoever the governor impulsively wills. 5Even so, the tongue is a little member, and boasts great things. Behold, how great a matter a little fire kindles! 6And the tongue is a fire—a world of iniquity! The tongue is so among our members: that it defiles the whole body and sets the course of nature on fire. And it is set on fire under Gehenna.
Fierce winds rule ships—or so it seems. Yet, a very small helm turns the ships! Thus, ships are under both the winds and the helm.
The tongue of everyone ruled by it will be set on fire under Gehenna’s authority. (Gehenna is another name for the Lake of Fire and Sulfur.)
2 Peter 2:17 These are wells without water, clouds that are carried under a tempest; to whom the mist of darkness is reserved for ever.
The tempest is the agent over the clouds, pushing them where it is going. This text describes persons, however. A person who is a well without water is a person who can offer no substance that will sustain life. Such a well is an empty hole; these a person is an empty hole. They are also clouds that are carried under the authority of a tempest, and therefore are very much part of the tempest.
Jude 1:12 These are spots in your love feasts, when they feast with you, feeding themselves without fear. They are clouds without water carried about under winds, trees whose fruit withers, without fruit, twice dead, plucked up by the roots…
These are dry clouds being carried under the power of winds.
Revelation 6:13 And the stars of heaven fell unto the earth even as a fig tree casts her untimely figs when she is shaken under a mighty wind.
The mighty wind is the force that shakes the trees and makes the fruit fall. The trees do not volunteer to be shaken; they are under the grip of the wind.
Galatians 3:10 For as many as are from the works of the law are under the curse. For it is written, “Cursed is everyone who doesn’t continue in all things that are written in the scroll of the law to do them.”
Being from the works of the law shows source. These folks are established in their zeal to do the works of the Torah. Saul of Tarshish was an example of such folks. Thus, they are considered from the works of the Torah: whatever they do is from what they believe to be the proper works of the Torah. Faith is no issue; they see themselves as doing its works. They do not know that doing the works of the Torah without faith will lead to two opposite consequences. As long as they are properly doing the works, they have nothing counting against them in those works. If they do works that are sinful, however, and all do, they now have a deficit—a debt to the Torah and to justice. They are therefore under the Torah’s curse since the Torah specifies curses for those who don’t continue in all things written in the scroll of the Torah to do those things.
There is a great difference between being “from the works of the Torah” and being “in the Torah.” A person can easily be “in the Torah” (that is, a Torah abider, one who does what is appropriate according to his or her station in the Torah, and also who does not do what is inappropriate according to the same station) and doing what is right by faith. This is not well understood today. Most in Christianity are under the illusion that being an “in the Torah” person eliminates faith. That is a great error. A person who is a “from the works of the Torah” person will not have a proper faith. That person will also attempt to do right by his or her view, or his or her rabbi’s view, of what is right according to the Torah. That person, however, has a type of faith that is real and is wrong because it doesn’t provide a true means of forgiveness of sin or of a way to turn permanently from sin and sinning. The Teaching of Yehovah was not designed to do that. Had it been, there would not have been a need for a sacrifice that greatly exceeded all sacrifices listed in the Torah.
Those who are “in the Torah” must have faith with that in order to be turned from sin and sinning, and that faith must be in the extra provision that Yehovah sent to truly remove sin. Those who are “from the works of the Torah” will not be able to tolerate that faith as long as they believe that the works they do take care of the sins they also do.
Jude 1:6 And He has reserved the angels in everlasting chains under darkness unto the judgment of the great day that didn’t keep their first estate, but left their own habitation.
The darkness is over these chained angels; they are under the authority and power of darkness. They will later be loosed in order to attack bad guys (as described in Revelation).
Acts 2:22 “Ye men of Israel, hearken-to these words! Yeshua of Nazareth, a man approved from God among you by miracles and wonders and signs that God did via Him in the midst of you, as ye yourselves also know, 23ye have taken Him, being delivered by the determinate counsel and foreknowledge of God. And ye have crucified and slain by wicked hands, 24Whom God raised up, having loosed the pains of death. For, it was not possible that He should be held under it.”
Again, death is no location. Being held under death is under the force, influence, jurisdiction, and etc. of death.
Romans 12:21 Be not overcome under evil, but overcome evil with good.
These folks will be under the rule of evil, as the Germans were under Hitler. They will be suffering great oppression. The only reasonable response is to do good. Those who join in assassinations will only promote the justification of violence.
Revelation 9:18 The third part of men was killed under these three: from the fire and from the smoke and from the brimstone that issued from their mouths.
This text uses both under and from where from shows source and under shows the authority to kill.
James 1:14 Every man is tempted when he is drawn away under his own lust, and enticed.
A man’s lust can easily become an authority and drive over him if he desires to relinquish self-control.
Romans 3:9 “What then? Are we better than they? No! In no wise! For we have before proved both Jews and Greeks, that they are all under sin!”
Sin rules over them!
Romans 7:14 For we know that the Torah is spiritual. But I am carnal, sold under sin.
The Torah teachings spiritual things of God by physical motions, objects and times. Whatever is spiritual is of, from, or pertaining to the Spirit of God.
Paul was remembering what his condition was before he came to faith in Yeshua. He is speaking this in the present tense because he is remembering. Many careless readers have not understood this, and have thought that he was describing his condition at the time of the writing of the letter to the Romans. Had that been the case, how dare he command others to not sin and to live righteously while he declares his own personal failure to do the same. He by the Spirit of Yehovah condemns those who are breakers of the Torah while telling others to live according to it.
Colossians 2:18 No man shall beguile you of your reward in voluntary humility and worshipping of messengers, intruding into those things that he hasn’t seen, vainly puffed up under his fleshly mind, 19and not holding the Head from which all the body increases with the increase of God, ministered by joints and bands, having nourishment and knit together.
The Spirit of God through Paul is warning these folks to beware so that they are not suckered by others causing them to lose their reward. Those who are suckered voluntarily humble themselves before humans whom they see as messengers; they prostrate to these messengers and do what they say instead of considering the Word of God. The text switches to a singular pronoun: “that he hasn’t seen,” referring to one messenger at a time. Such a messenger is intruding into things that he hasn’t seen, and thus doesn’t know. He is emptily and idolatrously puffed up (being arrogant) under the authority and directly of his fleshly mind—a mind that is ruled by his own lusts. He doesn’t hold the Head—Messiah Yeshua—but instead is acting as the head, as if he himself is the messiah sent to these folks.
2 Corinthians 5:4 For we who are in a tabernacle do groan, being burdened—not that we would be unclothed, but clothed upon, so that mortality will be swallowed up under life.
Who swallows what in this text? Mortality is swallowed under the authority and power of life.
Ephesians 5:12 For it is a shame even to speak of those things that are done under them in secret. 13But all things that are reproved are made manifest under the light. For whatsoever makes manifest is light.
Those things done under them are done in the areas where they have power and the position to do them. It isn’t that they are right to do them, but they have a certain sway and authority to affect persons and objects in their area of control. Thus, with gang rape, a group has a woman under its power and authority even if there is no right to be in authority; that group rapes the woman under the group.
The second use of under in this text is just like it is in English. He was put under the light. That is a term describing interrogation and very close inspection. The light may or may not be physically above the person, but the person is being ruled by that light during that interrogation.
James 2:3 And ye have respect to him who wears the gay clothing. And ye say unto him, “Sit thou here in a good place!” And ye say to the poor, “Stand thou there,” or “Sit here under my footstool.”
While “under my footstool” sounds very religious, especially since that is where Yeshua’s enemies turned friends will be when the Jewish Messiah comes, it is being used as an insult and as a way to speak to adults as if they are children just because they are poor.
Romans 16:20 And the God of peace shall quickly tread Satan under your feet.
This text describes a backfiring on Satan, his helpers, and humans who are doing what Satan desires during the Tribulation. The idea will be to stop folks from taking Jews to Mount Zion. Instead of being successful in stopping them, the God of peace will tread Satan and his forces under their feet so that those forces instead end up helping get more quickly to Mount Zion. This will happen so quickly, that the enemies won’t know what happened.
1 Corinthians 15:25 For He must reign till He has put all enemies under His feet. 26The last enemy that shall be destroyed is Death. 27For He has put all things under His feet. But when He says, “all things are put under,” [it is] manifest that He Who did put all things under Him is excepted [is the exception].
Placing enemies under one’s feet physically isn’t too smart if they are large group. Placing them under foot describes that they will become subservient, and in this case, friends. (The text describes a footstool; no person desires a footstool that attacks.) The picture is of placing one’s foot physically on the neck of an enemy, but only long enough to gain the vow of friendship from that enemy (unless the enemy will be killed).
Thus, under in this text, or under feet describes a relationship position. It is pictured by a physical position, but those enemies become friends.
Ephesians 1:22 And He put all under His feet, and gave Him, the Head over all, to the congregation…
This word under doesn’t refer to an actual location, since Yeshua would be stepping on everyone and everything during His reign. The picture of things being under His feet doesn’t show an adversarial relationship as it would in English. When we think of things being under a person’s foot, that person is stepping on those things. The same is not true in Hebrew or in this Greek description. Rather, it shows that He is elevated about all things in rank, in power, in responsibility, as if He is on a platform or a footstool that is raised in elevation above all whom He rules. This is not like placing a foot on the neck of a dog, or like what David did with fallen Goliath. It is instead a demonstration of position; all will come to the Jewish Messiah’s feet to prostrate and to receive orders.
Acts 17:24 God, Who made the world and all things in it, seeing that He is Lord of the heavens and the land, doesn’t dwell in temples made with hands 25and is not worshipped under men’s hands as though He needed anything, seeing He gives life and breath to all, and all things.
God is not under the authority of humans. He therefore is not worshipped under their hands, under their doings as if He could be manipulated by them in the way idols are manipulated by them. Yehovah has set Himself to be manipulated by man, as numerous texts affirm, but always being true to His character. If He could not be manipulated, giving urgent requests to Him would be futile. But even the energetic prayer of a righteous man will greatly avail. Moshe used words to stop Yehovah from destroying Israel when Yehovah was furious with Israel. Yeshua was born from the womb of a woman, and she breastfed Him. She reared Him. Thus, she manipulated Him while He grew. These manipulations are always for righteousness. He is not like an idol that must be activated by human hands or by demons.
1 Peter 5:6 Therefore, humble yourselves under the mighty hand of God so-that He will exalt you in due time.
When members of a group humble themselves under the hand of God, they are submitting to His authority and commands.
Acts 5:21 And when they heard, they entered into the Temple under the morning, and taught.
The morning still had sway at that time.
The following text does not conform to the texts we are considering. I place it here to show a distinct contrast with the next section that does.
Romans 3:19 Now we know that whatsoever things the Torah says, it says to them who are in the Torah so that every mouth will be stopped and all the world will become guilty before God.
Being in the Torah indicates being participant with the Torah by being the object of the Torah. All the Israelis are in the Torah; it pertains to them (like it or not).
Other texts that are akin to the above are the following:
Acts 13:39 And all who believe are justified in Him from all things from which ye in the Torah of Moshe could not be justified.
Romans 2:12 For as many as have sinned without Torah shall also perish without Torah. And as many as have sinned in the Torah shall be judged via the Torah.
Those who are in the Torah are the ones for whom the Torah was designed. That includes all the Israelis.
Romans 2:17 Behold, thou art called a Jew. And thou restest in the Torah. And thou makest thy boast of God. 18And thou knowest the will. And thou approvest the things that are more excellent, being instructed from the Torah. 19And thou art confident that thou thyself art a guide of the blind, a light of them who are in darkness, 20an instructor of the foolish, a teacher of babies—which [thou] hast the form of knowledge and of the truth in the Torah.
This person is in the Torah, being Jewish and therefore being the object of the Torah’s first usage. All to whom the Torah has been given as a command are therefore in the Torah.
Romans 2:23 Thou who makes thy boast in the Torah, dost thou dishonour God via breaking the Torah?
This person is in the Torah, and makes his boast. If he then breaks the Torah, he dishonours God.
Galatians 3:11 It is evident that no man in the Torah is justified in the sight of God. For the righteous man shall live via His faith.
A person who is in the Torah isn’t justified by being in the Torah. That person still must be justified in the sight of God by some other means. If this were not the case, all born in the Torah would automatically be justified (be rendered righteous). Being in the Torah is good, but it is a teaching tool, not a justification tool. A person who is righteous has been justified. That person will live via His faith, not via being in the Torah. The person will not violate the Torah, but the person’s faith will perfectly match the Torah’s teaching.
Galatians 5:4 Messiah is become of no effect unto you, whosoever of you are justified in the Torah! Ye are fallen from grace!
No person can be justified/rendered righteous in the Torah, since it has no mechanism for justification.
Summing this up, speakers of English understand under the law to mean what the Greek wording means when it uses in the Torah. When the text states under the Torah, it therefore is referring to something different, and that is what this document is establishing.
Romans 3:21 But now, the righteousness of God is manifested apart-from the Torah, being witnessed under the Torah and the prophets.
The righteousness of God was witnessed under two authorities: the Torah and the prophets. They both spoke of the righteousness of God that must occur. The righteousness of God was not manifested inside the Torah itself; it was manifested apart from the Torah. The crucifixion was not a Torah event. The sacrifice that was needed was described in the Torah, but the crucifixion itself was not an event of the Torah.
Romans 6:14 For sin shall not have dominion over you. For ye are not under the Torah, but under grace. 15What then? Shall we sin because we are not under the Torah, but under grace? Absolutely not!
So far, we have seen that being under something is rarely positional, though it can be. It won’t be, in this case. We have also seen that this is not the same as being in the Torah. This being under has to do with authority, power, hearing, etc. The Romans were never under the authority of the Torah since they were also not in the Torah. Yet, they are under the authority of the Grace of God, having been born of God. Those who are under the Torah still have sin dominating them.
1 Corinthians 9:20 And I became as a Jew unto the Jews so-that I will gain the Jews; as under the law to them that are under the law so-that I will gain them that are under the law; 21as without law to them that are without law that I might gain them that are without law (not being without law to God, but in the law to Messiah).
The expression, “in the law,” means exactly what we speakers of English think when we say, “under the law.” A person who is in the law is a law follower—one who is doing and living according to the Torah, or should be.
Paul described himself in three different situations: among the Jews, among the folks under the Torah, and among the races and all those who are not related to the Torah in any way. It is curious that he made a distinction between the Jews and those under the Law as if they are not the same. They mustn’t be the same. (Had they been the same, the Spirit of God through him would not have made a distinction.)
I have elsewhere proposed that “the Jews” refers to a sect: the Yehudeem, a subgroup of the Jewish People who, like the Pharisees, are determined to hold to a standard by which they can claim to be the true Jews of Israel among the Israelis.
Those who are under the law could be Jewish or non-Jewish, but they are not merely Torah abiders. They are rather another group, a group that this paper explores.
The third group is more obvious: they are folks who have nothing to do with the Torah as far as attempting to follow it in daily life.
Paul’s purpose was to deal with each as if he were part of that group so that he could properly convey Truth to each group and not presume that they understand things they didn’t.
Galatians 3:15 Brethren, I speak after the manner of men. Though [it is] but a man’s covenant, yet confirmed, no man disannuls or adds to it. 16Now, the promises were made to Abraham and his seed. He doesn’t say, “And to seeds,” as of many, but “And to thy seed,” as of One, Who is the Messiah. 17And I say this: the Torah/Teaching that was four hundred and thirty years after cannot disannul the Covenant that was previously confirmed under God in the Messiah so-that it would make the promise of no effect. 18For if the inheritance is from the Torah, [it is] no more from a promise. But God gave to Abraham via promise. 19Therefore, then, is the law? It was added because of transgressions until the Seed to whom the promise was made will come, appointed via messengers in the hand of a mediator. 20Now, a mediator is not of one, and God is One. 21Is, then, the Torah/Teaching against the promises of God? Absolutely not! For if there had been a teaching given that could have given life, verily righteousness would have been by the teaching. 22But the Scripture has concluded all under sin so-that the promise will be given from Messiah Yeshua’s faith to them who believe. 23But before faith came, we were kept under the Torah/Teaching, shut up unto the faith that will be revealed afterwards. 24Therefore the Torah/Teaching was our schoolmaster unto the Messiah so-that we will be justified from [source] faith. 25But after faith is come, we are no longer under a schoolmaster. 26For ye are all the children of God via faith in Yeshua the Messiah.
We have four under expressions:
- Under God
- Under sin
- Under the Torah/Teaching
- Under a schoolmaster
These expressions all have the same implication: being in a position where the object of the preposition is the power, authority, controlling agent and holder of what ever is being discussed.
- Since the Covenant was confirmed under God, God was the power, authority, controlling agent and holder (giver, in this case) of the Covenant.
- Since all are concluded under sin, sin is the power, authority, controlling agent and holder of all until an individual or group is rescued from the power of sin.
- Since the Israelis are under Torah/Teaching, the Torah/Teaching is the power, authority, controlling agent and holder of the Israelis before faith comes.
- Since the Israelis are no longer under a schoolmaster after faith comes, the schoolmaster no longer is the power, authority, controlling agent and holder of the Israelis; faith is; conscience is.
That schoolmaster position is excellent for its purpose: Teaching; that is exactly what Torah means. Once a person has been taught, the person’s profession will be according to the Teaching and not in violation of it, and not with contempt for the schoolmaster or the schoolmaster’s teachings. Those teachings become part of the professional person. Those teachings are a friend.
Galatians 4:1 Now, I say, the heir differs nothing from a slave as long as he is a child, though he is lord of all, 2but is under tutors and governors until the father’s appointed time. 3Even so, we were in bondage under the elements of the world when we were children. 4But when the fullness of the time was come, God sent forth His Son, made of a woman, made under the Torah/Teaching 5to redeem them who were under the Torah/Teaching so that we will receive the adoption of sons (‘sonshipment’).
Being under tutors has everything to do with authority and strictness. The tutors are strict; they are slavemasters. The next statement confirms this: “Even so, we were in bondage under the elements [foundational things, including what we learned—kindergarten] of the world when we were children.” Everyone who is somewhat older is ‘over’ a baby if the person is caring for the baby. The baby and the child are slaves to adults. Adults dictate to them. In the same manner again, Yeshua was a slave as a child under the Torah/Teaching; his obligation was to obey it in every detail. He did this all His life in order to redeem them who were also under the Torah/Teaching, who were slaves like He was, in order to receive the position of being a son of Yehovah the Father. Therefore, under has a part of it that indicates slavery, subservience.
Galatians 4:21 Tell me, ye that desire to be under the law, do ye not hear the law?
While this text seems obvious in its implications, it isn’t. Since the Greek expression of “in the Law” is what we understand to mean ‘under the law,’ the Greek expression “under the Law” has a different meaning. It has to do with being arrested by it, under its anger, in effect, as if the person isn’t free, but must do as a prisoner would do, a prisoner who violated what was right and now is facing incarceration.
Galatians 5:18 But if ye are Spirit led, ye are not under the law.
A person who is ‘Spirit led’ is one who goes where the Spirit of God takes the person and who does what the Spirit of God assigns the person to do. Such a person takes responsibility and runs with it. This is not a person who takes on responsibilities that are greater than what a person can take on to that person’s harm, but truly does what must be done for the saving of lives…
Since being under the Law is being under accusation of its violations, and thus being restricted according to the Law, being under condemnation, a person who is Spirit led will not be in such a position. That person may or may not be “in the Law” by usage of the Greek terms, but will nevertheless be in complete compliance with the righteousness that is described in the Torah, the Teaching of Yehovah, and will be righteously doing righteousness.
James 2:9 But if ye have respect to persons, ye commit sin, and are convicted as transgressors under the law.
Conviction goes along with under the law. A violator is under the Torah, convicted of its violation.
Anyone who is Biblically under the Law/Torah is either a violator of it or is in some way under its accusatory power.
A person who is Biblically in the Law/Torah is one who is either practicing it in a proper manner or who should be practicing it. All Israelis are in the Torah, whether they like it or not. If that weren’t the case, the Torah’s threats against violation would be null. The Israelis suffer the consequences of Torah violation every so many years through holocausts and expulsions that defy what other races experience. The Israelis also occasionally obtain the good promises of the Torah when they work in a unified matter for the benefit of the soil of Israel.
Those who use ‘law’ texts to supposedly prove that the Law of God (the very Word of God) has been abolished only prove their ignorance and contempt for the infallible and everlasting Word of Truth. This includes a great deal of modern Christianity. Anyone who holds any part of the Word of Yehovah in contempt is not born of God, and will have no part in the resurrection of the righteous and of the good world to come.