Head Coverings

What Does the Bible Say about Head Coverings?


I will give a literal rendering of the text. After this, I will have a series of questions and proposed answers for your consideration.

The Text

1 Corinthians 11:1 Be imitators of me according as I am also of Messiah. 2Now I commend you, brethren, that ye have remembered me in all things. And ye keep the guardings according as I delivered to you. 3But I wish you to know that the Messiah is the head of every man and the man is the head of a woman, and God is the head of Messiah. 4Every man praying or prophesying having, on the head, puts his Head to shame. 5But every woman praying or prophesying with the head uncovered puts her head to shame. For it is one and the same with having been shaved. 6For if a woman is not covered, let her also be shorn. But if shameful to a woman to be shorn or to be shaven, she shall be covered. 7For man indeed does not owe to have the head covered, being the image and glory of God. But woman is the glory of a man. 8For man is not from woman, but woman from man. 9For also man was not created on account of the woman, but woman on account of the man. 10The woman owes to have authority on the head because of this: on account of the angels/messengers. 11However, man is not apart from woman or woman apart from man in Yehovah. 12For as the woman is from the man, so is the man also via the woman, but all things are from God. 13Judge in yourselves. Is it comely for an uncovered woman to pray to God? 14Or doesn’t even nature itself teach you that if a man has long hair, it is a dishonour to him? 15But if a woman has long hair, it is glory to her! For the long hair is given to her instead of a covering. 16But if anyone thinks to be contentious, we have no such custom, nor the assemblies of God.

Continue reading “Head Coverings”

Passover Seder Book

Click Here to obtain a PDF of the Footnote Booklet.

All owe thanks to all who have contributed time and cooking, cleaning and setup, book provision and funds, and the provision of this location.

Editors in alphabetical order:

Ann and Randy Miller

Elaine Nesmith


Thanks is due to Richard and his family for use of this room. We owe Yehovah God Israel for His work on behalf of Israel, both in the historical Skip-over redemption and in the future one. All who have a Biblically based faith and the Hope in the Resurrection of the dead await the Salvation of Israel, and will recognize Israel’s importance and centrality in that Hope being realized. Salvation truly is of the Jews.


This booklet employs Skip-over instead of Passover since pesach literally means to skip over, showing landings only at certain points. Passover sounds more like a crossing (which is reflected in the root from which Hebrew comes).




Shalom, and Welcome!

One must consider a few things before beginning this reading from the Hebrew. Tonight, you will be reading and hearing an English rendering that is as close to ‘exactly’ the original Hebrew as we can approach. This means that it will appear awkward, at first, challenging and perhaps even nonsensical at times. But the careful reader who believes this is truly the Word of God will consider, “Why would the God of the Bible word things this way?” His character and way of looking at the world come through in His living Word. Because it is from the Hebrew, familiar names such as Moses, Aaron and Abraham will read as Moshe, Aharon and Avraham. City names will be rendered by what they mean, not the familiar term, so that Hebron will be rendered Friendship.

Biblical Hebrew used no punctuation; periods, commas, question marks, quotation marks and dashes are not in the original scrolls. This challenges the translator to determine when one speaker ends and another begins. As you consider the texts, keep in mind that the added punctuation is only to assist, and it is not infallible. Feel free to challenge it, as well as the translation.

The Hebrew uses feminine and masculine genders, three tenses, and singular and plural forms. An object (like a city) might appear as a ‘she’. No ‘it’ is found in Hebrew. The English pronouns thee, thy, thine and thou always mean that their objects are singular. Ye, your and you always mean their objects are plural.

Tenses are used in one additional way in the Hebrew. If a future tense is followed by a past tense in the same sentence, it often means that once the future-tense part is carried out, the past-tense action will certainly follow.

Asking questions during a traditional church service reading is not considered proper etiquette. In the Hebrew culture, however, questions are appreciated and desired. The Skip-over event traditionally begins with four questions. Please feel free to raise your hand at any time, and question something you do not understand. Our goal is not to cover a certain amount of text, tonight, but to bring a clear understanding of the texts being read. Ask yourself during the reading, “What does an event that happened 4,000 years ago have to do with us today?” “Do we do anything today that traces its roots back to this event?” “Does this event have future significance?” “Why was it recorded in such great detail by the Creator of the Universe?”

Start asking us questions now; then we will begin.

Verse numbers will be in braces like this: <13>. Footnotes will not be in boxes.



Exodus 7: Introduction to the Exit

<1> And Yehovah1 said unto Moshe,2 “See, I gave3 thee, gods4 to Pharaoh.5 And Aharon6 thy brother will be thy prophet!7 <2> Thou—thou shalt speak all that I will command thee. And Aharon thy brother will speak unto Pharaoh. And he will send the sons of Israel from his land! <3> And I—I will harden8 the heart9 of Pharaoh. And I will multiply my signs10 and my miracles11 in the land of Mitzraim!12 <4> And Pharaoh will not hearken13 unto you. And I will give14 my hand15 into16 Mitzraim. And I will make-exit17 mine armies,18 my People19 the children20 of Israel, from the land of Mitzraim via big justices!21 <5> And the Egyptians shall know that I am Yehovah in my stretching my hand22 upon Mitzraim. And I will make-exit the children of Israel from their midst!”

<6>And Moshe did, and Aharon, just as Yehovah commanded them. So they did! 23  <7> And Moshe is a son of 80 year!24 And Aharon is a son of 3 and 80 year during their speaking unto Pharaoh!



The Serpent’s Meal

<8> And Yehovah said unto Moshe and unto Aharon to say,25

<9> “Because Pharaoh will speak unto you to say, ‘Give ye for yourselves a wonder!’ 26 And thou shalt say unto Aharon, ‘Take thy rod! And throw to the faces of27Pharaoh.’ He will become28 to a serpent!”

<10> And Moshe came, and Aharon, unto Pharaoh. And they did so—just as Yehovah commanded. And Aharon threw his rod29 to the faces of 27 Pharaoh and to the faces of his slaves.30 And he became to a ‘taneen’! 31  <11> And also Pharaoh called to wise-men32 and to warlocks.33 And the diviners34 of Mitzraim—also they did so via their flames.35 <12> And they threw, a man his rod! And they became to ‘taneeneem’! 36 And the rod of Aharon swallowed their rods! <13> And the heart 9 of Pharaoh gripped.37 And he did not hearken unto them, just as Yehovah spoke!




Egyptian Punch


<14> And Yehovah said unto Moshe, “The heart of Pharaoh is heavy.38 He refused to send the People. <15> Walk unto Pharaoh in the morning. Behold, he will exit waterward.39 And be positioned to meet him upon the lip40 of the canal. And thou shalt take the rod that flipped-over41 to a serpent42 in thine hand. <16> And thou shalt say unto him, ‘Yehovah Gods43 of the Hebrews44 sent me unto thee to say, “Send45 my People! And he has served46 me in the desert!” And behold, thou hast not hearkened unto so! 47 <17> So said Yehovah, “Thou shalt know that I am Yehovah via48 this! Behold, I am smiting via the rod that is in my hand upon the waters that are in the river! And they shall be flipped-over to blood! <18> The fish that is in the canal will die and the canal shall stink. And the Egyptians will loath to drink water from the canal!”’”

<19> And Yehovah said unto Moshe, “Say unto Aharon, ‘Take thy rod. And stretch thine hand upon waters of Mitzraim, upon their rivers, upon their canals and upon their pools, and upon every gathering of their waters. And they shall be blood! And the blood shall be in all the land of Mitzraim, and in the trees and in the rocks!”

<20> And Moshe and Aharon did so, just as Yehovah commanded. And he elevated via the rod. And he smote the waters that are in the canal to the eyes of49 Pharaoh and to the eyes of his slaves. And all the waters that are in the canal flipped-over to blood! <21> And the fish that is in the canal died. And the canal stank. And Egyptians were not able to drink water from the canal. And the blood50 was in all the land of Mitzraim! <22> And the diviners34 of Mitzraim did so via their flames.51 And the heart9 of Pharaoh gripped.37 And he did not hearken13 unto them just as Yehovah spoke. <23> And Pharaoh turned. And he came unto his house. And he did not put his heart also to this. <24> And all Egyptians dug water around the canal to drink, for they were not able to drink from the waters of the canal. <25> And He fulfilled seven of the days after Yehovah’s smiting the canal.




<26> And Yehovah said unto Moshe, “Come52 unto Pharaoh! And thou shalt say unto him, ‘So said Yehovah! “Send my people! And he has served me! <27> And if thou art refusing to send, behold I am scourging all thy border via Tzfardeem!53 <28> And the canal shall swarm Tzfardeem. And they shall ascend. And they shall come into thine house and into the chamber of thy bed and upon thy recliner and into the house of thy servants and into thy people and into thine ovens and into thy kneadingtroughs! <29> And the Tzfardeem will ascend into thee and into thy people and into all thy servants. The Tzfardeem shall ascend!”’”



Exodus 8: Tzfardeem (Frogs)

<1> And Yehovah said unto Moshe, “Say unto Aharon, ‘Stretch thine hand via thy rod upon the rivers, upon the canals and upon the pools. And make the Tzfardeem ascend upon the land of Mitzraim!’”1

<2> And Aharon stretched his hand upon waters of Mitzraim. And the Tzfardaya2 ascended. And she3 covered the land of Mitzraim. <3> And the diviners4 did so via their flames. And they made-ascend the Tzfardeem upon the land of Mitzraim. <4> And Pharaoh called to Moshe and to Aharon. And he said, “Entreat5 unto Yehovah, and He has turned-away the Tzfardeem from me and from my people! And I will send the people. And they have sacrificed to Yehovah.”

<5> And Moshe said to Pharaoh, “Make yourself bright6 concerning me! When shall I entreat for thee and for thy servants and for thy people to cut-off the Tzfardeem from thee and from thy houses? Only in the canal they will remain.”

<6> And he said, “Tomorrow!”

And he said, “According to thy word so that thou shalt know that there isn’t as Yehovah our Gods!7 <7> And the Tzfardeem shall turn-away from thee and from thine houses and from thy servants and from thy people. Only in the canal will they remain.”

<8> And Moshe exited, and Aharon, from with Pharaoh. And Moshe shouted8 unto Yehovah concerning the matter of the Tzfardeem that He put to Pharaoh. <9> And Yehovah did according to the word of Moshe. And the Tzfardeem died from the houses, from the courtyards and from the fields. <10> And they heaped them, their bubbling, their bubbling. And the land stank. <11> And Pharaoh saw that the breather9 was. And he weighted10 his heart11 and did not hearken unto them just as Yehovah spoke.



Dusty Louse

<12> And Yehovah said unto Moshe, “Say unto Aharon, ‘Stretch12 thy rod and smite dust of the land. And he will become13 to their louse in all the land of Mitzraim.’”

<13> And they did so. And Aharon stretched his hand via his rod. And he smote dust of the land. And she became their louse in adam and in beast—all dust of the land became lice in all the land of Mitzraim.  <14>And the diviners did so via their flames to send-out the lice. And they were not able! And their louse became in adam14 and in beast.15

<15> And the diviners4 said unto Pharaoh, “He is the finger of gods!”16 And the heart of Pharaoh gripped.17 And he did not hearken unto them just as Yehovah spoke.



 The Swarm

<16> And Yehovah said unto Moshe, “Early-rise18 in the morning. And position-thyself19 to the faces of20 Pharaoh. Behold he will exit to the water. And thou shalt say unto him, ‘So said Yehovah, “Send my people, and he has served me!21  <17>For if thou art not sending my people,22 behold I am sending into thee and into thy servants and into thy people and into thy houses the swarm! And they shall fill the houses of Mitzraim with the swarm, and also the soil that they are upon her!  <18> And in that day, I will segregate23 the land of Goshen upon which my people is24 standing so that the swarm is not being there, so that thou wilt know that I am Yehovah in the midst of the land!  <19> And I will put a redemption25 between my people and between thy people. Tomorrow, this sign26 shall be!”’”

<20> And Yehovah did so. And a heavy27 swarm came to the house of Pharaoh and the house of his servants and in all the land of Mitzraim. The land was ruined28 from the faces of the swarm!

<21> And Pharaoh called unto Moshe and to Aharon. And he said, “Walk ye! Sacrifice ye to your gods29 in the land!”

<22> And Moshe said, “Not established to do so! For we will sacrifice the abomination30 of Mitzraim to Yehovah our Gods! Behold, we will sacrifice the abomination of Mitzraim to their31 eyes, and he31 will not stone us? <23> We will walk a way of three days into the desert, and we will sacrifice to Yehovah our Gods just as He said unto us.”

<24> And Pharaoh said, “I, I32 am sending you! And ye shall sacrifice to Yehovah your gods in the desert! Only making distance, ye shall not make distance to walk!33 Entreat5 for my sake!”

<25> And Moshe said, “Behold, I am exiting from thy people. And I will entreat unto Yehovah. And He will turn-away the swarm from Pharaoh, from his servants and from his people tomorrow. Only Pharaoh shall not again keep-hanging34 to not send the people to sacrifice to Yehovah!”

<26> And Moshe exited from with35 Pharaoh. And he entreated unto Yehovah.  <27>And Yehovah did according to the word of Moshe. And he expelled36 the swarm from Pharaoh, from his servants and from his people. One did not remain.  <28> And Pharaoh weighted his heart also in this stroke.37 And he did not send the people.



Exodus 9: The Plague



<1> And Yehovah said unto Moshe, “Come unto Pharaoh. And thou shalt speak unto him,  ‘So said Yehovah Gods of the Hebrews,  “Send my people, and he has served1 me!”   <2> For if thou art refusing to send, and thou art yet gripping2 into them, <3> behold the Hand of Yehovah is being in thy cattle that is in the field—in horses, in asses, in camels, in herd and in flock, a very heavy plague.  <4> And Yehovah will segregate between the cattle of Israel and between the cattle of Mitzraim. And not a thing will die from all to the sons of Israel.’”


<5> And Yehovah put an appointment3 to say, “Tomorrow Yehovah will do this word in the land.”


<6> And Yehovah did this word from tomorrow.4 And every cattle of Mitzraim died. And not one from the cattle of the children5 of Israel died. <7> And Pharaoh sent. And behold, not unto one from the cattle of Israel died. And the heart of Pharaoh weighted.6 And he did not send the people.


Ashen Boil

<8> And Yehovah said unto Moshe and unto Aharon, “Take ye to you a fullness of your fists of ash of a furnace. And Moshe shall sprinkle him heavens-ward to the eyes7 of Pharaoh. <9> And he shall become to powder over all the land of Mitzraim. And he shall be upon the adam8 and upon the beast9 for a boil flowering eruptions-eruptions in all the land of Mitzraim.”

<10> And they took the ash of the furnace. And they stood to the faces of Pharaoh. And Moshe sprinkled him heavens-ward. And the boil of the eruptions-eruptions flowered in adam and in beast. <11> And the diviners were not able to stand to the faces of Moshe from the faces of10 the boil. For the boil is in their diviner11 and in all Mitzraim. <12> And Yehovah gripped12 the heart of Pharaoh. And he did not hearken unto them just as Yehovah spoke unto Moshe.



Bombing Hail, Voices, Lightning, Rain

<13> And Yehovah said unto Moshe, “Early-rise in the morning. And position thyself to the faces of Pharaoh. And thou shalt say unto him, ‘So said Yehovah gods of the Hebrews, “Send my people, and he has served me! <14> For in this stroke13 I am sending all my plagues unto thine heart and into thy servants and into thy people for the sake that thou shalt know that there is not like me in all the land! <15> For now I sent my hand and I smote thee and thy people via pestilence.14 And thou hast been expunged15 from the land! <16> And silently16 for the sake of this I ‘stood’17 thee—for the sake of showing thee my power and in order to scroll my Name in all the land. <17> Thou art yet building-up18 thyself via my people to not send them! <18> Behold I am raining very heavy hail as a time tomorrow, that there was not like him in Mitzraim from the day of her being founded and unto now! <19> And now, send! Firm19 thy cattle and all that is to thee in the field. All the adam8 and the beast that he will find in the field, and he will not be gathered to the house, and the hail will descend upon them, and they shall die!” ’ ” 20

<20> The fearer of the speech of Yehovah from the servants of Pharaoh made21 his servants and his cattle flee21 unto the houses. <21> And who23 did not put his heart unto the speech22 of Yehovah, and he forsook his servants and his cattle in the field.

<22> And Yehovah said unto Moshe, “Stretch thine hand upon the heavens! And hail was1 in all the land of Mitzraim—upon the adam and upon the beast and upon every herb of the field in the land of Mitzraim!”

<23> And Moshe stretched his rod upon the heavens. And Yehovah gave voices24 and hail! And fire25 walked landward! And Yehovah rained hail upon the land of Mitzraim! <24> And hail was very heavy, and fire taking herself in the midst of the hail—that there wasn’t like him in all the land of Mitzraim from then, her becoming to a race!26<25> And the hail smote all that is in the field from adam and unto beast in all the land of Mitzraim. And the hail smote every herb of the field. And he broke every tree of the field. <26> Only in the land of Goshen where the sons of Israel are there, hail wasn’t.

<27> And Pharaoh sent. And he called to Moshe and to Aharon. And he said unto them, “I sinned the stroke! 13,27 Yehovah is the righteous! And I and my people are the culpable-ones!28<28> Entreat-ye unto Yehovah, and multiply from29 there being voices24 of gods30 and hail. And I have sent you.1 And ye shall not add31 to stand!”32

<29> And Moshe said unto him, “As my going out of the city, I will spread my palms unto Yehovah. The voices shall cease and the hail will not be any more, so that thou shalt know that the land is to33 Yehovah! <30> And thou and thy servants—I knew! For before ye will fear from34 the faces35 of Yehovah Gods, <31> and the flax and the barley—she36 was smitten!37 For the barley is spring,38 and the flax is exalted-above.39 <32> And the wheat and the spelt were not smitten, for they are darkened.”40

<33> And Moshe exited the city from with Pharaoh. And he spread his palms unto Yehovah. And the voices ceased, and the hail and rain. And he did not pour-forth41 landward. <34> And Pharaoh saw that the rain ceased, and the hail and the voices. And he added to sin.42 And his heart43 heavied—he and his servants. <35> And the heart of Pharaoh gripped.2 And he did not send the children of Israel just as Yehovah spoke via the hand of Moshe.



Exodus 10: Locust


<1> And Yehovah said unto Moshe, “Come unto Pharaoh. For I, I weighted his heart and the heart of his servants so that I put these my signs in his midst <2> and so that thou wilt scroll in the ears of thy son and the son of thy son what I have acted1 myself in Mitzraim, and my signs2 that I placed in them. And ye shall know that I am Yehovah!”

<3>And Moshe came, and Aharon, unto Pharaoh. And they said unto him, “So said Yehovah Gods3 of the Hebrews, ‘Until when hast thou refused to humble from my faces?4 Send my people, and he5 has served me! <4> For if thou art refusing to send my people, behold I am bringing tomorrow a locust into thy border. <5> And he will cover the eye6 of the land. And he will not be able to see the land. And he will eat the excess of the escapee7 remaining to you from the hail. And he will eat all the tree8 that springs-forth to you from the field! <6> And they shall fill thy houses and the houses of all thy servants and the houses of all Mitzraim that thy fathers and fathers of thy fathers did not see from the day of their being upon the soil unto this day!’” And he turned. And he exited from with Pharaoh.

<7> And the servants of Pharaoh said unto him, “Until when will this be to us for a snare? Send the men! And they have served Yehovah their Gods! Is it before thou wilt know that Mitzraim perished?”9

<8> And he returned Moshe and Aharon unto Pharaoh. And he said unto them, “Go ye! Serve ye Yehovah your Gods! Who and who are the walking?”

<9> And Moshe said, “We will walk with our youths and with our elders; we will walk with our sons and with our daughters, with our flock and with our herd. For the solemnity10 of Yehovah is to us!” 11

<10> And he said unto them, “He will be so! Yehovah is with you, just as I will send you and your little-one!12 See ye that bad13 is straight-to your faces! <11> Not established!14 Go-ye, na,15 valiant-ones! And serve ye Yehovah! For ye are seeking her!”16 And he forced them from with the faces of Pharaoh.

<12> And Yehovah said unto Moshe, “Stretch thine hand upon the land of Mitzraim in the locust. And he has ascended upon the land of Mitzraim. And he has eaten every herb of the land, all that remained the hail.”

<13> And Moshe stretched his rod upon the land of Mitzraim. And Yehovah guided the spirit17 of east in the land all that day and all the night. The morning was. And the spirit of the east carried the locust. <14> And the locust18  ascended19  upon  all  the  land of Mitzraim.

And he rested in every border of Mitzraim, very heavy. To his faces20 there was not established a locust like him, and after him he will not be established.21 <15> And he covered the eye of all the land. And the land was darkened. And he ate every herb of the land and every fruit of the tree that remained the hail. And every green did not remain in a tree and in the herb of the field in all the land of Mitzraim.

<16> And Pharaoh hurried to call to Moshe and to Aharon. And he said, “I sinned to Yehovah your Gods and to you! <17> And now, carry22 thou, na,15 my sin but the stroke, and entreat ye to Yehovah your Gods! And He has turned-away from upon me only this death!” 23

<18> And he exited from with Pharaoh. And he entreated unto Yehovah. <19> And Yehovah flipped-over24 the spirit of the sea, very gripping.25 And He carried the locust. And He blasted26 Ending27 Seaward. One locust did not remain in all the border of Mitzraim. <20> And Yehovah gripped the heart of Pharaoh. And he did not send the children of Israel.



Felt Darkness

<21> And Yehovah said unto Moshe, “Stretch thine hand upon the heavens. And darkness was28 upon the land of Mitzraim. And he felt darkness.”

<22> And Moshe stretched his hand upon the heavens. And darkness of gloom29 was in all the land of Mitzraim three days. <23> They did not see—a man his brother, and they did not arise—a man from his tuchases30 three days! And light was to all the children of Israel in their settlements.

<24> And Pharaoh called unto Moshe. And he said, “Go ye! Serve ye Yehovah! Only your flock and your herd he will position.31 Also your little-one will walk with you!”

<25> And Moshe said, “Also thou, thou wilt give into our hand sacrifices and ascensions? And we will do to Yehovah our Gods? <26> And also our cattle will walk with us! A hoof will not remain! For we will take from us to serve Yehovah our Gods! And we, we will not know what we will serve Yehovah until our coming there!”

<27> And Yehovah gripped the heart of Pharaoh. And he did not consent to send them.

<28> And Pharaoh said to him, “Walk from upon me!32 Guard to thee!33 Do not add34 to see my faces! For in the day of thy seeing my faces, thou shalt die!”

<29> And Moshe said, “Established! Thou hast spoken! I will not add34 further to see thy faces!”



Exodus 11: Slaughter of Firstborn

<1> And Yehovah said unto Moshe, “I will bring one further strike upon Pharaoh and upon Mitzraim. Afterward, he will send you from this. According to his sending, he finished. Thrusting, he will thrust1 you from this! <2> Speak thou, na,2 in the ears of the people.3 And they have asked4 a man from with his neighbour and a woman from with her neighbour utensils of silver and utensils of gold.”

<3> And Yehovah gave favour of the people5 in the eyes of Mitzraim. The man Moshe is also very big6 in the land of Mitzraim in the eyes of the servants of Pharaoh and in the eyes of the people!

<4> And Moshe said, “So said Yehovah, ‘As halving the night,7 I am exiting in the midst of Mitzraim. <5> And every firstborn in the land of Mitzraim shall die—from the firstborn of Pharaoh sitting upon his chair unto the firstborn of the slave-woman who is after the millstones, and every firstborn of beast.’ <6> And a big scream will be in all the land of Mitzraim that was not like him, and will not increase8 like him. <7> And a dog will not cut his tongue9 to all the children of Israel to/from10 a man and unto a beast, so that ye will know that Yehovah will segregate11 between Mitzraim and between Israel! <8> And all these thy servants will descend12 unto me. And they will worship13 to me to say, ‘Exit thou!—thou and all the people that is with thy feet!’14 And afterward I will exit.” And he exited from with Pharaoh via heats15 of nose!

<9> And Yehovah said unto Moshe, “Pharaoh will not hearken unto you16 so that my wonders17 are multiplied in the land of Mitzraim.”

<10> And Moshe and Aharon did all these wonders to the faces of Pharaoh. And Yehovah gripped the heart18 of Pharaoh. And he did not send the children of Israel from his land.


Exodus 12: Spring

<1> And Yehovah said unto Moshe and unto Aharon in the land of Mitzraim to say,1 <2> “This month2 is the head3 of months to you. He is the first3 to you to the months of the year.4 <3> Speak-ye unto all the congregation of Israel to say, ‘In the 10th to this month, and they have taken to them a man a lamb for the house of fathers, a lamb for a house. <4> And if the house will-be-too-little5 from being6 from a lamb: and he will take, and his neighbour near unto his house, via the blanketing of beings.’ 7,8 Ye will blanket a man to the mouth of his eating concerning the lamb. <5> A perfect male son-of-a-year lamb9 will be to you. Ye shall take from the sheep and from the goats. <6> And he shall be to you for a guarding until the 14th day to this month. And ye shall slaughter him—all the congregation10 of the witness11 of Israel—between the evenings.12

<7> And they shall take from the blood. And they shall give13 upon two of the doorposts14 and upon the lintel,15 upon the houses in which they will eat him. <8> And they shall eat the flesh in this night roasted of fire.16 And they shall eat him, Matzos17 upon bitternesses.18

<9> ‘Ye19 shall not eat from him raw and boiling,20 boiled in water, but rather roasted of fire, his head upon his knees and upon his approach.21 <10> And ye shall not make-remain22 from him unto morning. And ye shall burn the remainder from him unto morning in fire. <11> And ye shall eat him thus: your loins girded, your shoes on23 your feet, and your walking-staff in your hand. And ye shall eat him24 in haste25—the Skip-Over26 is He27 to Yehovah!’ <12> And I will cross-over28 in the land of Mitzraim in this night. And I will smite every firstborn in the land of Mitzraim from adam29 and unto beast. And I will do justices30 via all gods31 of Mitzraim: I am Yehovah! <13> And the blood32 shall be to you for a sign33 upon the houses where ye are. And I will see the blood. And I will skip-over above you. And the strike34 will not be in you for a slaughter when I smite35 in the land of Mitzraim.

<14> And this day shall be to you for a remembrance.36 And ye shall solemnize37 him a solemnity37 to Yehovah to your generations. Ye shall solemnize him, a statute38 of Hider! 39

<15> Ye shall eat Matzos17 seven days. But ye shall make-cease40 leaven41 from your houses in the first day. For every eater of vinegar42, and that being43 shall-be-cut-off44 from Israel from the first day unto the seventh day.45

<16> And in the first day is a calling of a Holy-[One].46 And a calling of a Holy-[One] shall be to you in the day seven. He will not make47 any errand in them. He alone shall make for you only what he will eat for every being.48

<17> And ye shall guard49 the Matzos.17 For in this selfsame day I made-exit your hosts50 from the land of Mitzraim. And ye shall guard49 this day to your generations, a statute38 of Hider.39

<18> Ye shall eat Matzos in the evening in the first,51 in the 14th day to the month, unto the day one and twenty52 to the month in the evening. <19> Seven days, leaven41 will not be found in your houses. For every eater from vinegar,42 and that being in a sojourner and in a native of the land shall be cut-off from the witness11 of Israel! <20> Ye shall not eat every53 vinegar! Ye shall eat Matzos in all your dwellings!” 54

<21> And Moshe called to all elders of Israel. And he said unto them,  “Draw-ye55 and take-ye a flock to you—to your families. And slaughter-ye the Skip-Over!56 <22> And ye shall take a bunch57 of hyssop.58 And ye shall immerse59 in blood that is in a basin. And ye shall cause-to-touch60 unto the lintel61 and unto two of the doorposts from the blood that is in the basin.” 62

“And62 ye, ye shall not exit—a man from the opening of his house—unto morning. <23> And Yehovah will cross-over28 to smite Mitzraim. And He will see the blood upon the lintel and upon two of the doorposts.63 And Yehovah will Skip-Over above the opening. And He will not give the slaughterer to come unto your houses to smite.

<24>  “And ye shall guard this speech for a statute to thee and to thy sons unto Hider.39

<25> “And he shall be64 when ye shall come unto the land that Yehovah will give to you just-as He spoke. And ye shall guard this service! <26> And he shall be, for your sons65 shall say unto you, ‘What is this service to you?’ <27> And ye shall say, ‘He is the Sacrifice of Skip-Over to Yehovah Who Skipped-Over above the houses of the sons of Israel in Mitzraim in His smiting Mitzraim. And He rescued our houses!’”

And the People66 bowed. And they66 worshipped.67 <28> And they walked. And the sons of Israel did just-as Yehovah commanded Moshe and Aharon—they did so!68

<29> And he was in the half69 of the night. And Yehovah smote35 every firstborn in the land of Mitzraim from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sits upon his chair unto the firstborn of the captive who is in the house of the pit, and every firstborn of cattle! <30> And Pharaoh arose that night, and all his slaves, and all Mitzraim. And a big scream was in Mitzraim. For there is not a house where there is no death there!

<31> And he called to Moshe and to Aharon… night!… and said, “RISE-YE! EXIT-YE FROM THE MIDST OF MY PEOPLE!—also ye! Also the sons of Israel! And walk-ye! Serve-ye Yehovah as ye spoke—<32> also your flock! Take-ye also your herd just-as ye spoke! And WALK! And bless-ye also me!”

<33> And Mitzraim was strong upon the People to hurry to send them from the land. For they said, “All of us are dead-[ones]!”

<34> And the People70 lifted his dough before he will ‘vinegarize’, their kneadingtroughs bound-up in their clothes upon their shoulder.70 <35> And the sons of Israel did as Moshe spoke. And they asked from Mitzraim utensils of silver and utensils of gold and clothing. <36> And Yehovah gave the favour of the People in the eyes of Mitzraim. And they asked them. And they rescued Mitzraim.71 <37> And the sons of Israel journeyed from Raamses72 to Succot73 as 600,000 feet of the valiant-ones, beside a little-one. <38> And also a great mixture74 ascended with them, and a very heavy flock and herd of livestock!

<39> And they baked the dough that they made-exit from Mitzraim, discs of Matzos. For it was not ‘vinegarized’;75 for they were forced from Mitzraim. And they were not able to WHAT?WHAT?76 themselves. And they also did not make victuals for themselves.

<40> And the settlement of the sons of Israel where they lived in Mitzraim is 30 year[s]77 and 400 year[s].77 <41> And he was from the end of 30 year[s] and 400 year[s]. And he was in this selfsame day. All hosts of Yehovah exited from the land of Mitzraim. <42> He is a night of guardings to Yehovah to make-exit from the land of Mitzraim! He is this night to Yehovah, guardings to all the sons of Israel to their generations!

<43> And Yehovah said unto Moshe and Aharon, “This is the statute of the Skip-Over: every son of a foreigner78 will not eat in him. <44> And every slave, a man bought of silver and thou hast ‘fronted’79 him, then he will eat in him. <45> A sitter80 and a hireling—he will not eat in him.

<46> In one house he shall be eaten. Thou shalt not make-exit from the flesh from the house outside.81 And ye shall not break a bone in him.

<47> All the witness of Israel—they shall do him. <48> And if a sojourner will sojourn with thee and will do Skip-Over to Yehovah, ‘front’79 to him—every male! And then he will approach83 to do him. And he shall be as a native of the land. And every foreskin82 shall not eat in him! <49> One teaching84 will be to the native and to the sojourner sojourning in your midst.”

<50> And all the sons of Israel did just-as Yehovah commanded Moshe and Aharon—they did so!  And he was in this selfsame day. Yehovah made-exit the sons of Israel from the land of Mitzraim over their hosts!



Exodus 13: The Sea

<1> And Yehovah spoke unto Moshe to say, <2> “Sanctify1 to me every firstborn bursting-through2 every womb in the children of Israel—in adam3 and in beast. He is to Me!” 4

<3> And Moshe said unto the people, “Remember5 this day that ye went out from Mitzraim from the house of slaves. For Yehovah made you exit from this via grip of hand. And vinegar shall not be eaten.

<4> “Today ye are going out in the Month of the Spring. <5> And he shall be. For Yehovah will bring thee unto the land of the Canaani and the Khiti and the Emori and the Khivi and the Yevoosi6 that He swore to thy fathers to give to thee, a land oozing7 milk and honey. And thou shalt serve8 this service in this month. <6> Thou shalt eat Matzos9 seven days. And a solemnity10 is to Yehovah in Day Seven. <7> He shall eat Matzos with seven of the days. And vinegar shall not be seen to thee. And leavening shall not be seen to thee in all thy border.

<8>  “And thou shalt tell to thy son in that day to say, ‘Yehovah did to me when I came from Mitzraim on-account-of this!’11 <9> And he shall be to thee for a sign12 upon thine hand13 and for a remembrance between thine eyes14 so that the Teaching15 of Yehovah shall be in thy mouth. For Yehovah made thee exit from Mitzraim via a gripping hand! 16 <10> And thou shalt guard17 this statute18 to her appointment19  from days days-ward! 20

<11> “And he shall be. For Yehovah shall bring thee unto the land of the Canaani just as He swore to thee and to thy fathers. And He shall give her to thee.21 <12> And thou shalt cause- every burster-through22 of womb –to-cross-over23 to Yehovah, and every burster-through of fetus of beast that will be to thee. The males are to Yehovah! <13> And thou shalt redeem24 every burster-through of an ass via a lamb. And if thou wilt not redeem,24 and thou shalt neck25 him! And thou shalt redeem24 every firstborn of adam26 in thy sons.

<14> “And he shall be. For thy son shall ask thee tomorrow to say, ‘What is this?’ And thou shalt say unto him, ‘Yehovah exited us from Mitzraim from the house of slaves via grip of hand. <15> And he was. For Pharaoh hardened27 to send us. And Yehovah killed every firstborn in the Land of Mitzraim from the firstborn of adam26 and unto the firstborn of beast. Therefore I am sacrificing to Yehovah every burster-through of the womb, the males. And I will redeem24 every firstborn of my sons! <16> And he shall be for a sign upon thy hand and for frontlets28 between thine eyes. For Yehovah exited us from Mitzraim via grip of hand!’”

<17> And he was in Pharaoh’s sending the People. And Elohim did not lead them the way of the land of the Palestinians. For he is near. For Elohim29 said, “Lest the People will be grieved in their seeing war, and they shall return to Mitzraim.” <18> And Elohim circled the People the way of the desert of the Ending Sea.30

And the children of Israel ascended fives31 from the land of Mitzraim. <19> And Moshe took the bones of Yosef with him. For making-swear32, he made- the children of Israel -swear,32 saying, “Visiting,33 Elohim shall visit you. And ye shall ascend34 my bones with you from this.”

<20> And they journeyed from Succot.35 And they camped in  Aytam36at the edge of the desert.37 <21> And Yehovah is walking38 to their faces39 daily in a cloud pillar to lead them the way,40 and night41 in a fire pillar to enlighten42 to them to walk daily and night.41 <22> The cloud pillar will not yield43 daily, and the pillar of the fire, night, to the faces39 of the People.


Exodus 14: Egyptian Navy

<1> And Yehovah spoke unto Moshe to say, <2> “Speak1 unto the children of Israel. And they have sat.1 And they have camped to the faces2 of Mouth-Of-The-Holes3 between Tower7 and between the Sea4 to the faces of North-Lord.5 Ye shall camp directly-in-front6 of him upon the Sea. <3> And Pharaoh shall say to8 the children of Israel, ‘They are confused9 in the land! The desert shut upon them!’10 <4> And I will grip the heart of Pharaoh. And he will chase after them. And I have been demonstrated-important11 via12 Pharaoh and via all his army. And Egyptians shall know that I am Yehovah!” And they did so.


<5> And he was told13 to the king of Mitzraim that the people fled. And the heart of Pharaoh and his servants flipped-over14 unto15 the people. And they said, “What is this we did? For we sent Israel from our slavery!” <6> And he harnessed his chariot. And he took his people with him. <7> And he took 600 chosen16 chariot17 and every chariot of Mitzraim, and their third18 over all of him.19


<8> And Yehovah gripped the heart of Pharaoh, king of Mitzraim. And he chased after the children of Israel. And the children of Israel are exiting via an elevated hand.20 <9> And Egyptians chased after them. And every horse, chariot of Pharaoh and his horsemen and his army reached them camping upon the Sea upon  Mouth-Of-The-Holes  to  the  faces  of  North-Lord.

<10> And Pharaoh approached. And the children of Israel lifted their eyes. And behold, Mitzraim is journeying after them. And they feared very much! And the children of Israel screamed unto Yehovah. <11> And they said unto Moshe, “Is without—there are no tombs in Mitzraim—thou hast taken us to die in the desert??21 What is this thou hast done to us to make-us-exit from Mitzraim? <12> Is this not the speech that we spoke unto thee in Mitzraim to say, ‘Cease from us, and we have served Mitzraim!’ For better to us to serve Mitzraim than our death in the desert!”


<13> And Moshe said unto the people, “Fear ye not! Position yourselves! And see-ye the Salvation of Yehovah that He will do for you today. For what ye have seen with Mitzraim today, ye will not redouble22 to see them again unto hider!23 <14> Yehovah will war for you. And ye: ye shall hush!”


<15> And Yehovah said unto Moshe, “What wilt thou scream unto me? Speak24 unto the children of Israel, and they have journeyed!24 <16> And thou, elevate thy rod and stretch thine hand upon the sea. And split him. And the children of Israel have come into the midst of the Sea via the dry! <17> And I, behold I am gripping the heart of Mitzraim. And they have come after them! And I have been demonstrated-important via Pharaoh and via all his army, via his chariot and via his horsemen! <18> And Egyptians shall know that I am Yehovah via12 my being demonstrated-important via Pharaoh, via his chariot and via his horsemen!”


<19> And the Angel25  of the  Elohim26  who  walks  to  the faces of27 the  camp of Israel journeyed.  And  He  walked  from  after28 them.  And  the  pillar  of the cloud  journeyed  from29  their faces.  And He31 stood from after30 them.  <20> And He came between  the  camp of Mitzraim and  between32 the  camp  of Israel.  And  He33 was the cloud  and the darkness, and He lit the night. And this34 did not come-near unto this35 all the night.

<21> And Moshe stretched his hand upon the Sea. And Yehovah walked the Sea via a strong wind of the east all the night. And He put the Sea to drought. And the waters split. <22> And the children of Israel came into the midst of the Sea via the dry. And the waters are a wall to them from their right and from their left. <23> And Egyptians chased them. And every horse of Pharaoh, his chariot and his horsemen came after them unto the midst of the Sea. <24> And it was in the guarding of the morning. And Yehovah overlooked36 unto the camp of Mitzraim in the Pillar of fire and cloud. And He hummed37 the camp38 of Mitzraim. <25> And He removed the wheel of his charioteers.39 And He guided 40 him via heaviness. And Mitzraim said, “I will flee from the faces of Israel! For Yehovah is warring for them in Mitzraim!”


<26> And Yehovah said unto Moshe, “Stretch thine hand upon the Sea. And the waters have returned upon Mitzraim, upon his chariot and upon his horsemen.” <27> And Moshe stretched his hand upon the Sea. And the Sea returned to his vigour to the turnings of41 the morning. And Egyptians are fleeing to meet him! 42 And Yehovah shook-off43 Mitzraim in the midst of the Sea. <28> And the waters returned. And they covered the chariot and the horsemen to all the army of Pharaoh coming after them in the Sea. None remained in them unto one!44



<29> And  the  children  of  Israel  walked  via  the  dry  in  the  midst  of  the  Sea.  And  the  waters  are  a  wall45  to  them  from  their  right  and  from  their  left.  <30>  And  Yehovah  saved  Israel  in  that  day  from  the  hand  of  Mitzraim.  And  Israel  saw  Mitzraim  dead  upon  the  lip46  of  the  Sea.  <31>  And  Israel  saw  the  Big  Hand 47  that  Yehovah  made  in  Mitzraim.  And  they—the  people—feared  Yehovah.  And  they  believed  in  Yehovah  and  in  Moshe His servant.


Exodus 15: The Song

<1> Then Moshe will sing this song, and the children of Israel, to Yehovah. And they will say, to say,1 “I will sing to Yehovah! For heightening, He heightened2 horse! And He elevated his chariot via the Sea, <2> my Strength and the Serenade of Yah! And He became to me for Salvation!3 This is my Mighty-[One]!4 And I house-dwelt5 Him—my Gods, my Father! And I elevated Him! 6


<3> “Yehovah is a man of war! Yehovah7 is His Name! <4> He taught charioteers of Pharaoh and his army via the Sea! And they immersed the choice8 of his thirds9 via the Ending Sea! <5> Depths10 shall blanket-cover11 them. They shall descend into the profoundnesses12 like a stone. <6> Thy right, Yehovah, is my majesty in power! Thy right, Yehovah, will shatter13 an enemy! <7> Thou wilt demolish14 Thy risers via the multiplicity of Thy highness!15 Thou wilt send Thy heat!16 He17 will eat them as chaff! <8> And Waters were piled18 via the wind of Thy noses.19 Distillings20 were positioned like a heap.21 Depths congealed22 in the heart of the Sea!


<9> “Enemy said, ‘I will chase! I will reach! I will divide plunder! My being shall be filled of24 them! I will empty my sword! My hand will inherit them!’23 <10> Thou didst blow via Thy wind. The Sea blanket-covered11 them. They submerged25 like lead in majestic waters!


<11> “Who is like Thee in their mighty-[one],26 Yehovah? Who is like Thee—majestic27 via a Holy-[One],28 Terror29 of Psalms30 Pele31 did? <12> Thou didst stretch Thy right;32 land swallowed them. <13> Thou guided this people Thou redeemed33 via Thy Grace.34 Thou led via Thy strength unto the living-quarters35 of Thy Holy-[One].


<14> “The peoples hearkened. They quaked. An army grasped the inhabitants of Palestine.36 <15> Then the Alufs37 of Edom were dismayed,38 the strongmen of Moab! Trembling shall grasp them! All the inhabitants of Canaan melted!39 <16> Dread shall fall upon them, and fear via the bigness of Thine arm. They shall be silent as a stone until Thy people will cross-over, Yehovah—until this people Thou hast acquired will cross-over! <17> Thou shalt bring them. And Thou hast planted them in the Mountain of Thine inheritance established for Thy dwelling! Thou acted,40 Yehovah. Thine hands established the Sanctuary41 of my Lords! <18> Yehovah will reign to hider42 and onward!


<19> “For Pharaoh’s horse came with his chariot and with his horsemen into the Sea. And Yehovah returned the waters of the Sea upon them. And the children of Israel walked via the dry in the midst of the Sea.”


<20> And Miriam the prophetess,43 sister of Aharon took the tambourine via her hand. And all the women exited after her via tambourines and via dances. <21> And Miriam answered to them, “Sing-ye to Yehovah! For heightening,44 He heightened44 horse! And He elevated his chariot in the Sea!”


The above is the historical Passover. The next texts will be Messiah’s Passover, and will refer to the future Passovers.





Luke 22: Messiah’s Skip-over

The Meal

<1> And the Feast of Matzah that is called the Skip-over1 drew near. <2> And the chief priests2 and scribes3 were seeking as to how they might put Him to death. For they feared the people.4  <3> And Satan5 entered into Yehudah6 who is surnamed ‘A man of cities’,7 being of the number of the twelve. <4> And having gone away, he spoke with the chief priests and the captains8 as to how he might deliver Him up to them. <5> And they rejoiced. And they agreed to give him money. <6> And he promised. And he sought opportunity to deliver Him up to them away from a crowd.

<7> And the day of unleavened bread came in which the Skip-over9 needed to be killed. <8> And He sent Peter and John, saying, “Having gone, prepare the Skip-over for us, that we may eat.”

<9> And they said unto Him, “Where willest Thou that we shall prepare?”

<10> And He said unto them, “Behold, on your having entered into the city, a man shall meet you carrying a pitcher of water. Follow him into the house where he enters. <11> And ye shall say to the master of the house, ‘The Teacher10 says to thee, “Where is the guestchamber where I may eat the Skip-over with my disciples?”’ <12> And he shall show you a large furnished upper room. Prepare there.” <13> And having gone, they found as He had said to them.11 And they prepared the Skip-over.

<14> And when the hour was come, He reclined. And the twelve apostles12 are with Him. <15> And He said to them, “With desire13 I desired to eat this Skip-over with you before I suffer-death/Skip-over.14 <16> For I say to you that no more—not at all will I eat of himuntil he is fulfilled in the kingdom of God.”15 <17> And having received16 a cup, having given thanks,17 He said, “Take this and divide among yourselves. <18> For I say to you that not at all will I drink of the fruit of the vine until the kingdom of God be come!”18 <19> And having taken a matzah, having given thanks, He broke and gave to them, saying, “This is my Body19 that is given for you.20 Do this21 in the remembrance of me.” <20> Likewise also the cup after having supped,22 saying, “This cup is the New Covenant in my blood that is poured out for you. <21> Moreover, behold, the hand23 of him delivering me up is with me on the table! <22> And indeed the Son of man goes as it has been determined. Nevertheless, woe24 to that man by whom He is delivered up!”

<23> And they began to question this together among themselves: Who then might it be of them who was about to do this? <24> And there was also this strife among them: Which of them is thought to be greatest? <25> And He said unto them, “The kings of the races rule over them!25 And those exercising authority over them are called well-doers! <26> But ye are not so. But he who is greatest among you shall be as the younger!26      And he who leads is as he who serves!27 <27> For who is greater, he who reclines, or he who serves? Is not he who reclines? But I am among you as he who serves! <28> And ye are they who have continued with me in my temptations.28 <29> And I appoint to you a kingdom29 as my Father hath appointed unto me <30> so that ye may eat and may drink at my table in my kingdom, and may sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.”

<31> And the Lord said, “Shimon!30 Shimon! Behold, Satan asked to have you31 for the sifting as wheat!32 <32> And I besought for thee33 that thy faith fail not. And when thou hast turned34 back, confirm35 thy brethren.36

<33> And he said to Him, “Lord, I am ready to go with thee both to prison and to death!”

<34> And He said, “I tell thee, Peter, no way shall the cock crow today before thou shalt thrice37 deny knowing me!”38

<35> And He said unto them, “When I sent you without purse and provision bag and sandals, did ye lack anything?”

And they said, “Nothing!”

<36> He said therefore to them, “However now he who has a purse, he shall take,39 and likewise a provision bag.40 And he that hath no sword,41 he shall sell his garment and buy one!42 <37> For I say unto you that this that has been written must yet be accomplished in me, ‘And He was reckoned with the transgressors!’43 For also the things concerning me have a goal.”

<38> And they said, “Lord, behold! Here are two swords!”

And He said unto them, “It is enough!”44



The Mount of Olives

<39> And going forth, He went according to custom45 to the Mount of Olives. And His disciples also followed Him. <40> And having arrived at the place, He said to them, “Pray to not enter into temptation!”46

<41> And He was withdrawn from them about a stone’s throw. And falling on knees, He prayed, <42> saying, “Father, if Thou art willing to take away this cup47 from me— But not my will, but Thine be done.” <43> And an angel from the heavens appeared to Him strengthening Him. <44> And He prayed more intensely, being in agony.48 And His sweat became as great drops of blood falling down to the earth.

<45> And having risen up from prayer, coming to the disciples, He found them sleeping for grief.49 <46> And He said unto them, “Why sleep ye? Having risen up, pray that ye will not enter into temptation!” 50


The Arrest

<47>And while He was yet speaking, behold a crowd. And he who was called Yehudah, one of the twelve, was going before them. And he drew near to Yeshua to kiss Him. <48> And Yeshua said unto him, “Yehudah, deliverest thou up the Son of man with a kiss?”

<49> And those around him seeing what was about to happen said unto Him, “Lord, shall we smite with the sword?” 51

<50> And a certain one of them52 smote the slave of the high priest, and took off his right ear. <51> And answering, Yeshua said, “Allow ye to this point!” 53 And having touched his ear, He healed him.54

<52> And Yeshua said to those who were come against Him—the chief priests and captains of the temple and elders, “Are ye come out as against a thief with swords and staves? <53> Daily when I was with you in the Temple, ye stretched not out hands against me! But this is your hour,55 and the power of darkness!”56

<54> And having seized Him, they led.


House of the High Priest

And they led Him into the House of the High Priest.57 And Peter was following afar off.  <55> And having kindled a fire in the midst of the court, and they, having sat down together, Peter sat among them.58

<56> And a certain maid having seen him sitting by the light, and having looked intently upon him said, “And this one was with Him!”

<57> But he denied Him, saying, “Woman, I don’t know Him!” 59

<58> And after a little, another seeing him said, “And thou art of them!”

But Peter said, “Man, I am not!”

<59> And having elapsed about one hour, a certain other strongly affirmed, saying, “In truth this one also was with Him! For he is also a Galilaean!”

<60> And Peter said, “Man, I don’t know what thou art saying!” And immediately, while he was speaking, the cock crowed. <61> And having turned, the Lord looked at Peter. And Peter remembered the word of the Lord, how He said to him, “Before the cock crows, thou wilt deny me thrice.” <62> And having gone forth outside, Peter wept bitterly.60

<63> And the men who were holding Yeshua mocked Him, beating. <64> And having covered Him up, they were striking His face. And they were asking Him saying, “Prophesy! Who is it that struck thee?” <65> And they blasphemously said many other things to Him.61

<66> And when it became day, the elders of the people and the chief priests and the scribes were gathered. And they led Him into their Sanhedrin, saying, <67> “If thou art the Messiah, tell us!”

<68>And He said to them, “Ye will not believe at all if I tell you.  And if I also ask, ye would not answer me nor let go. <69> Henceforth shall the Son of man be sitting on the right hand of the power of God.” 62

<70> And they all said, “Thou then art the Son of God!”

And he said to them, “Ye say that I am.” 63

<71> And they said, “What need we any further witness? For we ourselves have heard from his mouth!”



<23:1> And all the multitude of them having risen, they led Him unto Pilate.


Luke 23: Pilate, Part 1

<2> And they began to accuse Him, saying, “We found this perverting the race and forbidding to give tribute to Caesar, saying himself is the Messiah—a King!”

<3> And Pilate questioned him, saying, “Thou art the King of the Jews?” 1

And he answering him said, “Thou sayest.” 2

<4> And Pilate said to the chief priests and the crowds, “I find nothing blameworthy in this man.” 3

<5> But they were insisting saying, “He stirs up the people, teaching throughout the whole of Judea, beginning from Galilee even to here!” 4 <6> But Pilate having heard Galilee asked whether the man is a Galilaean. <7> And having known that He is from the jurisdiction of Herod, he sent Him up to Herod, he being also at Jerusalem in those days.



<8> And Herod seeing Yeshua greatly rejoiced, for he was wishing  for a long time to see Him because of hearing many things concerning Him. And he was hoping to see some sign done by Him. <9> And he questioned Him in many words. But He answered him nothing. <10> And the chief priests and scribes had stood violently accusing Him. <11> And Herod with his troops having contemned Him and having mocked, and having put splendid apparel on Him, he sent Him back to Pilate.

<12> And both Pilate and Herod became friends with one another on that same day.5 For previously they were at enmity between themselves.


Pilate, Part 2

<13> And Pilate, having called together the chief priests6 and the rulers6 and the people, <14> said unto them, “Ye brought this man to me as turning away the people. And having examined before you, behold I found nothing in this man blameworthy of which ye bring accusation against Him—<15> nor even Herod. For I sent you up to him. And behold, nothing worthy of death is done by Him. <16> Having therefore chastised Him, I will release.”

<17> (Now he had necessity to release one to them at the feast.7) <18> But they shouted out in a mass saying, “Away with this! And release to us Barabbas!”8 <19> (who was cast into prison on account of a certain insurrection made in the city, and murder).

<20> Again therefore Pilate called to them wishing to release Yeshua. <21> But they were shouting out, saying, “Crucify!” “Crucify Him!

<22> And he said to them a third time, “What evil then did this9 commit? I found no cause of death in Him. Having therefore chastised Him, I will release!”

<23> But they were urgent with loud voices, asking for Him to be crucified. And the voices of them and of the chief priests prevailed. <24> And Pilate adjudged their request to be done. <25> And he released to them him who had been cast into the prison on account of insurrection and murder, for whom they asked. And he delivered up Yeshua to their will.10

<26>And as they led Him away, having laid hold on Simon, a certain Cyrenian coming from a field, they put on him the cross to bear behind Yeshua. <27> And a great multitude of the people and of women were following Him who also were bewailing and lamenting Him.11

<28> And turning to them, Yeshua said, “Daughters of Jerusalem, don’t weep for me, but weep for yourselves and for your children. <29> For behold, days are coming in which they will say, ‘Blessed are the barren and wombs that did not bare, and breasts that did not give suck!’ <30> Then shall they begin to say to the mountains, ‘Fall upon us!’ and to the hills, ‘Cover us!’12 <31> For if they do these things in the green tree, what shall take place in the dry?”13

<32> And also two other malefactors were led with him to be put to death. <33> And when they came to the place called Skull, there they crucified Him and the malefactors, one on the right and one on the left.

<34> And Yeshua said, “Father, forgive them! For they know not what they do.” 14



And dividing His garments, they cast a lot.15 <35> And the people stood beholding. And the rulers also were deriding with them, saying, “He saved others! He shall save himself, if this is the Messiah, the chosen of God!”

<36> And the soldiers also mocked Him, coming near and offering Him vinegar16 <37> and saying, “If thou art the king of the Jews, save thyself!”


The Inscription, the Malefactors

<38> And there was also an inscription written over Him in Greek and Latin and Hebrew letters, This is the king of the Jews.17

<39> Now one of the malefactors who had been hanged railed at Him, saying, “If thou art the Messiah, save thyself and us!”

<40> But answering, the other rebuked him, saying, “Dost thou not even fear God, who art under the same judgment? <41> And we indeed justly; for we receive a due recompense of what we did. But this18 did nothing amiss.” <42> And he said to Yeshua, “Remember me, Lord, when Thou comest in Thy kingdom!” 19

<43> And Yeshua said to him, “Verily I say to thee, today thou shalt be with me in Paradise.” 20



<44> And it was about the sixth hour.21 And darkness came over the whole land until the ninth hour. <45> And the sun was darkened.22 And the veil of the temple was torn in the middle.23 <46> And having shouted24 with a loud voice, Yeshua said, “Father!  I will commit my spirit into Thy hands!” And having said these things, He expired.

<47> Now the centurion, having seen what took place, glorified God, saying, “Indeed this man was righteous!” <48> And all the crowds that were come together to this sight, seeing the things that took place, beating their breasts, returned.25 <49> And all those who knew Him stood afar off, and women who followed Him from Galilee, beholding these things.


Joseph, the Body, the Women

<50> And behold a man named Joseph, being a counselor,26 a good and righteous man <51> (he had not assented to the counsel and the deed of them) from Arimathaea (a city of the Jews) and who was also himself waiting for the kingdom of God, <52> he having gone to Pilate begged the body of Yeshua. <53> And having taken it down, he wrapped it in a linen cloth and placed it in a tomb hewn in a rock in which no one was ever yet laid. <54> And it was Preparation Day.27 And the Sabbath28 was coming on. <55> And women having also followed who were come with Him out of Galilee saw the tomb and how His body was laid. <56> And having returned, they prepared aromatics and ointments, and on the Sabbath rested according to the commandment.


Luke 24: The Tomb Texts


<24:1> But on the first of the week at early dawn, they came to the tomb, bringing aromatics that they had prepared, and some with them. <2> And they found the stone rolled away from the tomb. <3> And having entered, they did not find the body of the Lord Yeshua.1 <4> And it came to pass, as they were perplexed about this, that behold two men2 stood by them in shining garments.

<5> And they becoming filled with fear and bowing to the earth, they said to them, “Why seek ye the living with the dead? <6> He is not here, but is risen! Remember how He spoke to you yet being in Galilee, <7> saying, ‘It behooveth the Son of man to be delivered up into hands of sinful men and to be crucified, and to arise the third day.’” <8> And they remembered His words.

<9> And having returned from the tomb, they related all these things to the eleven and to all the rest. <10> Now it was Miriam of Migdal and Yohannah and Miriam of Jacob and the rest with them who told these things to the apostles. <11> And their words appeared before them like idle talk. And they disbelieved them. <12> But Peter having risen up ran to the tomb. And having stooped down, he sees the linen cloths lying alone. And he went away home, wondering at that which had come to pass.


Toward Emmaus

<13> And, behold, two of them3 were going on the same day to a village, being distant—sixty furlongs4—from Jerusalem, whose name is Emmaus. <14> And they were conversing with one another about all these things that had taken place. <15> And it came to pass as they conversed and reasoned, that Yeshua Himself having drawn near went with them. <16> But their eyes were held so that they would not know Him.5

<17> And He said to them, “What words are these that ye exchange with one another as ye walk, and are downcast in countenance?”

<18> And the one answering whose name is Cleopas said to Him, “Sojournest thou alone in Jerusalem and hast not known the things that are come to pass in it in these days?”

<19> And He said to them, “What things?” And they said to Him, “Concerning Yeshua the Natzarean Who was a man, a prophet mighty in deed and word before God and all the people, <20> and how the chief priests and our rulers delivered Him up to judgment of death, and crucified Him! <21> But we were hoping it is He Who is about to redeem Israel. But then with all these things, this brings the third day today since these things came to pass. <22> And—but certain women from among us astonished us, having been early to the tomb. <23> And not having found His body, they came, declaring also to have seen a vision of angels who say He is living! <24> And some of those with us went to the tomb and found so as also the women said! But they didn’t see Him.”

<25> And He said to them, “Senseless and slow of heart to believe in all that the prophets spoke! <26> Was it not needful for the Messiah to suffer these things and to enter into His glory??”

<27> And beginning from Moses and from all the prophets, He interpreted to them the things concerning Himself in all the Scriptures. <28> And they drew nigh to the village where they were going.

And He appeared to be going farther. <29> And they constrained Him, saying, “Abide with us! For it is toward evening, and the day has declined.” And He entered in to abide with them.


Yeshua Eats Bread

<30> And it came to pass, as He reclined with them, having taken the bread, He blessed.6 And having broken, He gave to them. <31> And their eyes were opened. And they knew Him! And He disappeared from them.

<32> And they said to one another, “Was not our heart burning in us as He was speaking to us in the way, and as He was opening to us the Scriptures?” <33> And rising up the same hour, they returned to Jerusalem.

<34> And they found the eleven gathered together, and those with them,  saying, “The Lord is risen indeed! And He appeared to Shimon!” <35> And they related the things in the way, and how He was known to them by the breaking of bread.

<36> And as they were telling these things, Yeshua Himself stood in their midst and says to them, “Shalom to you!” <37> But being terrified and filled with fear, they thought they beheld a spirit.

<38> And He said to them, “Why are ye troubled? And why do reasonings come up in your hearts?  <39> See my hands and my feet—that I am He! Handle me, and see! For a spirit has not flesh and bones as ye see me having!”

<40> And having said this, He showed them hands and feet. <41> But yet while they were disbelieving for joy and were wondering, He said to them, “Have ye anything edible here?” <42> And they gave to Him part of a broiled fish and of a honeycomb. <43> And having taken, He ate before them.

<44> And He said to them, “These are the words that I spoke to you yet being with you, that all things must be fulfilled that have been written in the Torah of Moses and the Prophets and the Psalms concerning me.” <45> Then He opened their understanding to understand the Scriptures.


Explanation and Israel’s Assignment

<46> And He said to them, “Thus it has been written, and thus it behoved the Messiah to suffer and to rise from among the dead the third day. <47> And repentance and remission of sins should be proclaimed in His Name to all races beginning at Jerusalem.7 <48> And ye are witnesses8 of these things. <49> And, behold, I send the promise of my Father upon you. But remain ye in the city of Jerusalem until ye be clothed with power from on high.”

<50> And he led them out as far as to Bethany. And having lifted up His hands, He blessed them. <51> And it came to pass as He was blessing them, He was separated from them and was carried up into the heavens. <52> And they having worshipped9 Him returned to Jerusalem with great joy.

<53> And they were continually in the Temple praising and blessing God. Amen.



Matthew, Mark, Luke, 1 Corinthians Reconciled

If Messiah’s Skip-over texts are joined in order, avoiding redundancy, all four Texts put together are as follows:

And He said unto them, “With desire I have desired to eat this Skip-over with you before I suffer. For I say unto you, I will not any more eat of him10 until it11 be fulfilled in the kingdom of God.”

And He took the cup. And He gave thanks. And He said, “Take this and divide among yourselves. For I say unto you, I will not drink of the fruit of the vine12 until the kingdom of God shall come.”

And as they were eating, Yeshua took bread. And He blessed. And He brake. And He gave to the disciples. And He said, “Take! Eat! This is my Body13 that is given,14 broken15 for you. Do this16 in remembrance of me.”

Likewise also He took the cup after supper. And He gave thanks. And He gave to them, saying, “This cup17 is the New Covenant18 in my blood that is shed for you.” 19

And they all drank of it.

“For this is my blood of the New Covenant18 that is shed for many20 for the remission21 of sins. Do ye this in remembrance of me as often as ye drink.22 But I say unto you, I will not drink henceforth of this fruit of the vine until that day when I drink it new with you in my Father’s kingdom, the Kingdom of God!” 23

For as often as ye eat this bread24 and drink this cup, 25 ye26 do show the Lord’s death till He comes.27 Therefore whosoever shall eat this bread28 and drink the cup of the Lord29 unworthily30 shall be guilty of the Body31 and blood of the Lord! But let a man examine himself.32 And so let him eat of the bread and drink of the cup. For he who eateth and drinketh unworthily eateth and drinketh damnation to himself, not discerning the Lord’s Body! 33





The Seder (Order)

1. Yeshua took the cup.

2. He gave thanks (in Hebrew, confessions).

3. He told the Disciples to take the cup (singular) and divide it among themselves. Messiah did not drink, but will do so when the Kingdom of God shall come (teaching that the Kingdom of God has not yet come).

4. He took Matzah during the meal.

5. He blessed Yehovah.

6. He broke the bread, dispensing it to the Disciples.

7. He then told them to take the Matzah. They did, and

8. He told them to eat it, declaring that the Matzah is His Body that is given and dispensed for them (for the Israelis). The word broken, referring to bread, indicates piecing it for eating, not shattering as in a broken heart. Messiah told them to break and piece Matzah to each other in remembrance of Him.

9. He took the cup after they had eaten the Skip-over as He had during the meal.

10. He again gave thanks to Yehovah.

11. He gave it to them, telling them that the cup is the New Covenant in His blood that is shed for the Israelis. He did not relate the cup’s contents with blood at this point, but the whole cup and its contents with the New Covenant. This New Covenant is made in His blood, and His blood is shed for the Israelis. His Disciples all drank from this cup, confirming the New Covenant in His blood.

Messiah stated that the blood mentioned before is His blood of the New Covenant that is shed for many—not just the Israelis—for sin remission. They are to do this Skip-over section in remembrance of Messiah as often as they drink.

Messiah reminded them that He would not drink of this fruit of the vine until that day (the Day of Yehovah) when He drinks it new with them in His Father’s Kingdom, the Kingdom of God.



Psalm 126

<1> A Song of the steps1 in Yehovah’s returning the captivity2 of Zion.

We were as dreamers.3 <2>Then our mouth shall be filled of laughter, and our tongue an ululation! 4

Then they shall say in the races,5 “Yehovah made big6 to do with these! 7

<3>Yehovah made big to do with us! 8 We were happy-ones!”

<4> Return, Yehovah, our returning-ones as rivulets in the Negev.9  <5> The seeders10 with a tear11 shall reap12 with an ululation. <6>Walking, he shall walk and weep, lifting, drawing the seed.13 Coming, he shall come with a ululation, carrying his bundles.14


Under the Law

What Does the Bible mean by

Under the Law?

Table of Contents

Under All Types of Angels

Under Demons

Under an Angel or Angels in General

Under the Devil

Under Various Animals

Under Animals/Beasts

Under Serpents

Under Sheep

Under Authorities

Under Government

Under God in Various Forms

Under the Cloud

Under God

Under the Father

Under the Lord

Under the Spirit of God

Under Yeshua

Under Groups in Various Forms

Under Adversaries

Under Sinners

Under a Congregation.

Under Circumcision

Under Pharisees

Under the Apostles

Under the Brethren

Under the Builders

Under the Yehudeem

Under Armies

Under Soldiers

Under Races/Nations

Under a Location

Under Heavens

Under Methods of Living and Thinking

Under a Doctrine

Under a Lifestyle/Conversation

Under Conscience

Under Various Persons

Under a Prophet

Under Folks

Under Physicians

Under John the Baptist

Under Moshe

Under Paul

Under Objects and Powers

Under Objects

Under the Yoke

Under Wind or Waves

Under a Curse

Under Darkness

Under Death

Under Evil

Under Killing Items

Under Lust

Under Sin

Under the Mind

Under Life

Under the Light

Under a Footstool

Under Feet

Under Hands

Under a Time

Under a Time

In and Under the Torah/Law

In the Torah

Under the Law/Under Torah



Matthew 1:22 Now all this was done, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the Lord by the prophet.

The expression, “of the Lord,” takes the Greek word hupo that has the following acceptations as its main flavour: by, under. Take the above text and place this in:

Matthew 1:22 Now all this was done, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken under the Lord by the prophet.

The reason why I used under instead of by is because the word by is a different word in Greek, and is used in this verse. The word by is dia, meaning via. Thus, this verse would be better rendered,

Matthew 1:22 Now all this was done, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken under the Lord via the prophet.

What does under mean? Well, I considered this. This paper looks at all texts I found that use under as a separate Greek word. There are also compounds that use it; I didn’t research these.

The true motivator of this paper is the use of the expression, “under the law.” I desired to know what this meant.

Regarding the categories: Many will be mixed. I will still speak of each use of under. I have chosen one category when several usages occur in the same text block.

Under All Types of Angels

Under Demons

Luke 6:18 And they that were vexed under unclean spirits: and they were healed.

Those folks were under the ‘care’ of the unclean spirits. Those spirits hassled them and made life miserable. The only way for them to be practically removed from the sway of the unclean spirits was to be healed.

Acts 5:16 There came also a multitude of the surrounding cities unto Jerusalem bringing sick folks and those who were vexed under unclean spirits. And they (everyone) were healed.

When folks are possessed by demons, they are under the powerful sway of the demons. They are not under the authority of those demons, but are rather yielding to the powerful influence of them. A demon cannot be an authority in the true sense over a human, since humans are always higher in rank than demons. If humans yield to them, however, the behaviour is like a switch in authority, like a general who hearkens to the ideas of a corporal.

Under an Angel or Angels in General

Luke 2:21 And when eight days were accomplished for the circumcising of the child, His name was called ‘Yeshua’ Who was so named under the angel before he was conceived in the womb.

The angel was given the responsibility of expressing the name to give to the baby Yeshua.

Luke 16:22 And it came to pass that the beggar died, and was carried under the angels into Abraham’s bosom: the rich man also died, and was buried.

The angels were given the right and responsibility to carry this man from his body to Avraham’s bosom. They did their task.

Under the Devil

Matthew 4:1 Then Yeshua was led up under the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted under the devil.

Yeshua was led up under the authority and command of the Spirit of Yehovah. He was sent to be tempted under the authority and command of the devil. Though He was temporarily under the devil’s oversight, that didn’t mean that Yeshua was to obey him. Instead, He had to refuse to obey him and refuse to do wrong. The devil had no power to cause Him to do anything.

Mark 1:13 And He was there in the wilderness forty days, tempted under Satan. And He was with the wild beasts. And the angels ministered unto Him.

Yeshua was tempted under Satan’s command and authority. Yeshua Himself was not under Satan’s command and authority, but rather He was placed there so that Satan could use the authority Yehovah gave Satan to test Yeshua.

Luke 4:1 And Yeshua being full of the Holy Spirit returned from Jordan. And He was led by the Spirit into the wilderness, 2being tempted under the devil forty days.

This is another text that refers to Yeshua’s being under the devil’s authority to tempt, command to tempt, and power to tempt. He never was under the authority, command or power of the devil in any other way (unless the text specifies).

Luke 8:29 (For he had commanded the unclean spirit to come out of the man. For oftentimes it had caught him: and he was kept bound with chains and in fetters; and he brake the bands, and was driven under the devil into the wilderness.)

This man was under the authority and sway of this demon. He was not a free agent.

Acts 10:37 “Ye know that word that was published throughout all Judaea. And it began from Galilee, after the baptism that John preached 38how God anointed Yeshua of Nazareth with the Spirit of the Holy [One] and with power, Who went about doing good and healing all who were oppressed under the devil. For God was with Him.”

When the devil is able to directly act on a person, that person is under the devil—that is, under the sway, influence, and results of the devil’s interactions.

2 Corinthians 2:9 For I also did write to this end—that I might know the proof of you, whether ye are obedient in all things. 10To whom ye forgive anything, I also. For if I forgave anything, I forgave it to whom I forgave it for your sakes in the person of Messiah 11lest an advantage will be taken of us under Satan. For we are not ignorant of his devices.

Paul himself had no right to express forgiveness for another who was offended except that Paul was a prophet. A true prophet quotes Yehovah; Paul was a true prophet. Thus, he expressed Messiah’s forgiveness through prophecy.

Satan himself watches communities of Saints. If they do wrong, Satan will take advantage as if he is an authority over them. (He accuses the brethren, the Israelis, on a regular basis. It doesn’t matter that he is lower in rank than a human; he can speak of justice to Yehovah. When the Israelis sin, he is quick to apprise Yehovah of that sin to see if Yehovah will twist justice for the sake of Israel, or if He will do to Israel according to His justice. That puts Israel in a continuously precarious position with Yehovah.

2 Timothy 2:26 And they (who are taken captive under him at his will) may recover themselves out of the snare of the devil.

The devil, in this text, has captives; they are under the devil—that is, they are trapped and in his grip and authority. Please notice that they can recover themselves out of that snare! Such a man who was demon-possessed intentionally came to meet Yeshua, though the demons did not like this meeting at all:

Luke 8:26 And they arrived at the country of the Gadarenes that is over against Galilee. 27And when He went forth to land, there met him a certain man from the city who had devils a long time, and wore no clothes. And he didn’t abide in a house, but among the tombs. 28When he saw Yeshua, he shouted and fell down before Him. And he said with a loud voice, “What have I to do with thee, Yeshua, Son of God most high? I beseech thee, torment me not!” 29(For He had commanded the unclean spirit to come out of the man. For it had oftentimes caught him. And he was kept bound with chains and in fetters. And he broke the ropes and was driven under the devil into the wilderness.) 30And Yeshua asked him, saying, “What is thy name?” And he said, “Legion!” (For many devils were entered into him.) 31And they besought Him that He would not command them to go out into the deep. 32And there was a herd of many swine feeding there on the mountain. And they besought Him that He would permit them to enter into them. And he permitted them. 33Then the devils went out of the man and entered into the swine. And the herd violently ran down a steep place into the lake, and were drowned. 34When they who fed saw what was done, they fled and went and told in the city and in the country. 35They then went out to see what was done. And they came to Yeshua. And they found the man out of whom the devils were departed sitting at the feet of Yeshua, clothed, and in his right mind. And they were afraid. 36 Also, they who saw told them by what means he that was possessed of the devils was healed. 37Then the whole multitude of the country of the Gadarenes round about besought Him to depart from them. For they were taken with great fear. And He went up into the ship and returned back again.

Under Various Animals

Under Animals/Beasts

Revelation 6:8 And I looked. And behold, a pale horse. And his name that sat on him was Death. And Hades followed with him. And power was given unto them over the fourth part of the earth to kill in sword and in hunger and in death, and under the beasts of the earth.

Power was given to these two fallen angels: Death and Hades (Sheol) over one fourth of the earth. They had three means of killing: in sword (warfare), in hunger (famine) and in death. They also had a fourth means: under the beasts (animals) of the earth. The beasts were given authority and power to kill humans. (The text is in the past tense. The reader must not assume that it has already happened; much of Biblical prophecy is in the past tense, since the Bible is as a book written during the Millennium. It is an infallible history book written before the history occurs.)

Under Serpents

1 Corinthians 10:9 And we are not to tempt Messiah as some of them also tempted, and were destroyed under serpents. 10And ye shall not murmur as some of them also murmured, and were destroyed under the Destroyer.

Their destruction wasn’t physically under snakes or the Destroyer; they were destroyed when they were placed under the power of the snakes and the Destroyer. Yehovah sent killing serpents. They bit; folks died. The serpents didn’t have to physically come on top of them for them to be killed; a snakebite was enough. Yehovah gave the serpents power to kill and the assignment to do so; they obeyed. Thus, the Israelis were under the power and authority of the serpents. Had the text read, “And were destroyed by serpents,” that would have given the impression that this was a natural phenomenon with the intensity turned up, but natural nevertheless. (Who is this Destroyer?)

Under Sheep

John 10:14 “I am the good shepherd. And I know mine. And I am known under mine.”

This is akin to saying, “They under my sheep know me.” The sheep thus have sway of those who are under the sheep—under their sway, authority, etc. This happened with Paul as he traveled. Those who came under his sway, including the Roman guard, knew Yeshua because of Paul’s characterization of Him.

Under Authorities

Under Government

Acts 24:21 I am called in question touching the resurrection of the dead under you this day.

Paul knew he was under the authority and jurisdiction of Felix and his government. (The pronoun you is always plural in the Bible.)

Acts 25:14 And when they had been there many days, Festus declared Paul’s cause unto the king, saying, “There is a certain man left in bonds under Felix…”

Felix had jurisdiction.

Under God in Various Forms

Under the Cloud

1 Corinthians 10:1 Moreover, brethren, I would not that ye should be ignorant, how that all our fathers were under the cloud, and all passed through the sea…

Being under the cloud sounds like a physical location. However, this paper is exploring this and finding that it most often refers to authority, governance, etc. They were not just physically under the cloud; that cloud was the physical Spirit of Yehovah in visible form. The same things that Yeshua promised the Spirit of God would do once He left were done for the Israelis by that cloud.

Under God

Matthew 22:31 “But as touching the resurrection of the dead, have ye not read what was spoken unto you under God?”

This continues to show that the words of the prophets are given to the prophets under the authority, power and command of God.

Luke 1:26 And in the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent under God unto a city of Galilee, named Nazareth.

Gabriel the messenger was sent under the authority and command of God to deliver a message.

Acts 10:33 I therefore immediately sent to thee. And thou hast done well that thou art come. Now, therefore, we are all present here before God to hearken-to all things that are commanded thee under God.

This, again, shows the responsibility of an assignment given by one higher in rank.

Acts 10:40 God raised Him up the third day and openly showed Him—41not to all the people, but unto witnesses previously chosen under God—even to us, who did eat and drink with Him after He rose from the dead. 42And He commanded us to preach unto the people and to testify that it is He Who was ordained under God the Judge of alive and dead.

Those witnesses were chosen under God’s authority just as Yeshua was ordained under God’s authority.

Romans 13:1 Let every soul be subject unto the higher powers. For there is no power but is from [orginates from] God. The powers that be are appointed under God.

Yehovah appointed those powers and the persons who hold those positions. This has been true throughout history. Yehovah appointed Nero and Hitler as well as Nebuchadnezzar and the various pharaohs. His appointments have nothing to do with what they themselves did with the positions they were given. Yehovah is not responsible for the sin of any person. Yehovah knew. That does not make Him responsible for sin. He set the appointment knowing what those figures would do. That does not bring Him into guilt. Every leader that has been chosen has been also commanded to do good, to benefit. Yehovah did not give them a choice to do good or bad. He gave a command and no choice regarding ethics or morality. They had many choices and options within the bounds of good ethics and morality; many determined to violate and do violence, contrary to commands. Yehovah knew they would. Yet, He still gave them opportunity to do right. Many died under the hands of murderous evildoers. That wasn’t because Yehovah ordained them to do evil; it was because they were evil, but Yehovah gave them opportunity to do well. They ignored or hated the command of Yehovah. If Yehovah were guilty because He knew in advance, He would be responsible for every sin on this planet. He is not. Yet, many who are bitter will conclude otherwise, and Yehovah does not stop them from being in violation due to their bitterness; they are just like those evil rulers that they protest!

Romans 15:15 Nevertheless, brethren, I have written the more boldly unto you in some sort, as putting you in mind because of the grace that is given to me under God.

The main point of our citing this text is that grace is given to Paul under the authority and dictates of God. Since grace is a fervent, burning zeal by which one is actuated, Paul was given that under the hand and ruling of God so that he could do good and not evil.

1 Corinthians 2:12 Now we have received—not the spirit of the world, but—the spirit that is of God so that we shall know the things that are freely given to us under God.

Those things under God are freely given. God is in charge; He is the authority figure whose has items and abilities to give.

1 Corinthians 7:25 Now I have no commandment from Yehovah concerning virgins. Yet I give my judgment as one who has obtained favour to be faithful under Yehovah.

Yehovah favoured Saul when He confronted him and gave him an assignment before Saul even knew Who He was. The purpose of that confrontation, among other purposes, was so that Saul would be faithful under the authority and command of Yehovah.

1 Corinthians 8:3 But if any man loves God, the same is known under Him.

A person who truly loves God will be known as being under God.

2 Corinthians 1:3 Blessed is God—even the Father of our Lord Messiah Yeshua, the Father of wombings and the God of all consolation 4Who consoles us in all our Tribulation so-that we will be able to console them who are in any Tribulation via the consolation wherewith we ourselves are consoled under God.

We have had the expression, “under God,” elsewhere. This refers to a position in which He is in authority and is demonstrating His power and works; the others are in a position subservient to Him and therefore in obedience to Him.

Galatians 4:9 But now, after ye have known God, or rather are known under God, how do ye turn again to the weak and beggarly elements unto which ye desire to be in bondage again?

If they are known under God, they are identified as being slaves and subservient to God. The idea of again returning to the first things of kindergarten in order to become slaves of the kindergarten teacher makes no sense. A person who has been graduated is ready to live and to work. Folks who want to return to kindergarten make fools of the teacher and the teaching.

These non-Jewish folks wanted or were taught to become kindergarten learners of the Torah rather than living by the faith that would be part of being a graduated student. This made no sense since they had learned what was necessary regarding faith and had believed—if they had believed at all. Stepping backward would prove that they hadn’t come to faith. They were in pursuit of starting all over again as sinners and babies.

1 Thessalonians 1:4 …knowing, brethren beloved, your election under God.

1 Thessalonians 2:4 But as we accounted under God to be put in trust with the gospel, even so we speak; not as pleasing men, but God, Who tries our hearts.

These two texts again show that God is the One who is the authority and Who did the placing and the assigning.

Hebrews 5:4 And no man takes this honour unto himself, but he that is called under God, as was Aaron.

God did the calling; those who respond to His authority and calling are classified as under Him. Thus, “One nation under God” is truly false in the Biblical manner.

Hebrews 5:9 And being made perfect, He [Yeshua] became the Author of everlasting salvation unto all them who obey Him, 10called under God, a High Priest after the order of Melchisedec.

Yeshua Himself was called and was placed with Yehovah the Father being Yeshua’s authority. Thus, Yeshua was under Yehovah, though He is Yehovah.

Hebrews 12:5 And ye have forgotten the exhortation that speaks unto you as unto children, “My son, don’t despise thou the chastening of Yehovah nor weary when thou art rebuked under Him.”

Yehovah will both chasten and rebuke Israel as a son. He is over the teaching of that son. Israel is under His hand.

2 Peter 1:17 For he received honour and glory from God the Father when there came such a voice to him under the Excellent Glory, “This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.”

The Excellent Glory is a person Who spoke from the cloud and Who administered the Truth, “This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.” The administrator is over those to whom he administers and ministers even if that position is temporary.

Under the Father

Matthew 11:27 “All things are delivered unto me under my Father.”

Yeshua is declaring that Yehovah the Father has the authority and the right and power to command.

Matthew 20:23 And He says unto them, “Ye shall indeed drink of my cup, and be baptized with the baptism with which I am baptized. But to sit on my right hand and on my left is not mine to give, but for whom it is prepared under my Father.”

Yehovah the Father is the authority.

Luke 10:22 All things are delivered to me under my Father.

Yeshua was definitely under the authority of Yehovah the Father. This has confused ‘Jehovah’s Witnesses’ who think that this proves that ‘Jesus’ is far less than Yehovah the Father in every way. They cannot see or acknowledge that God Himself could possibly set Himself under another even for temporary purposes. Thus, they must remove the possibility of ‘Jesus’ being deity. They do not understand the power, authority, or character of God, and thus limit Him to what they think God would do.

John 14:21 “He who has my commandments and guards them, he it is who loves me. And he who loves me shall be loved under my Father. And I will love him. And I will manifest myself to him.”

This text is most bizarre. It declares that a person who has Yeshua’s commandments and guards them automatically is a lover of Yeshua. The person does not have to even know who Yeshua is. Paul was in that state when he was chasing Yeshua. The next statement declares that such a person shall be loved, showing a future state. That person shall be loved under Yeshua’s Father—that is, under His authority and under His command. Thus, those who fear Yehovah will love these folks; they are under Yehovah’s authority and command. On top of that, Yeshua will love that person, again showing a future state. Yeshua will later directly show Himself to that person, usually physically appearing. He did that to Paul when He said to Paul, “Why art thou chasing me?”

Under the Lord

1 Corinthians 11:32 But when we are judged, we are chastened under the Lord, that we should not be condemned with the world.

This greatly differs from being chastened by the Lord. By indicates who is doing the chastening. Under shows who is the authority; He may use others to do the chastening.

2 Thessalonians 2:13 But we under the Lord are always bound to confess to God for you, beloved brethren, because God has chosen you to salvation from the beginning through sanctification of the Spirit and belief of the Truth.

Those who are “under the Lord” are under Yeshua—that is, they both believe in Him and are under His authority and teaching. They are therefore slaves of righteousness and slaves of Yeshua. They are bound to confess to God for these Thessalonian Saints because God chose them to Salvation by the two means: sanctification of the Spirit, that is, the Spirit of Yehovah causing a transfer of ownership from adam and worldliness to Yeshua, and belief of the Truth—that is, faith in Yeshua Who is the Truth.

Under the Spirit of God

Luke 2:26 And it was revealed unto him under the Holy Spirit that he will not see death before he had seen Yehovah’s Messiah.

The Spirit of Yehovah took direct, personal authority to tell this man that he will not see death before seeing Yehovah’s Messiah. No prophet or angel was sent. This was direct.

Acts 13:4 So they departed unto Selevkia being sent forth under the Spirit of the Holy [One]. And they sailed to Cyprus from thence.

The Spirit of Yehovah assigned them to go to Selevkia.

2 Peter 1:21 For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man; but holy men of God spoke as they were moved under the Spirit of the Holy-[One].

The Spirit of Messiah was the Commander over these holy men of God.

Under Yeshua

Luke 5:15 But so much the more went there a fame abroad about Him. And great multitudes came together to hear and to be healed under Him from their infirmities.

These multitudes came to be placed under Him in the same way that a person places himself under a physician and the physician’s care.

Luke 9:7 Now Herod the tetrarch heard of all that was done under him: and he was perplexed, because that it was said under some, that John was risen from the dead.

The first ‘under’ has to do with the works and ministry of Yeshua, and the things that Yeshua did. Those things together were all that was done under Yeshua—that is, under the authority and working of His ministry.

The second ‘under’ has to do with other teachers who claimed that John was risen from the dead. Those who held to their teaching or their claims believed that he was raised from the dead.

Luke 13:17 And when He had said these things, all his adversaries were ashamed. And all the people rejoiced for all the glorious things that were done under Him.

Yeshua performed miracles, and those miracles were done under Him—that is, under His authority and power, as well as His teachings.

Luke 23:8 And when Herod saw Yeshua, he was exceedingly glad. For he was desirous to see Him from sufficiency, because he had heard many things concerning Him. And he hoped to have seen some miracle done under Him.

Herod saw Yeshua as a performer. A performer has an audience that is under the sway of the performer and magician. Thus, Herod desired to be under Yeshua in His miracle-working audience.

Philippians 3:12 …not as though I had already attained or were already perfect. But I follow after, though I shall seize that for which I also am seized under Messiah Yeshua.

Paul is walking perfectly at this time. Yet, the issue isn’t that he is walking perfectly; it is rather that he follows after the goal and will seize it by properly running in the same manner that Yeshua seized him for Yeshua’s purposes. A person who walks perfectly before Yehovah doesn’t have time to consider his or her perfection, but instead must continue in the race so that he or she won’t trip by looking backward or staring at his or her own navel.

3 John 1:12 Demetrius hath good report under all men and under the Truth Himself. Indeed, and we also bear record. And ye know that our record is true.

All men and the Truth report over Demetrius, and they witness that the man does well and right.

Under Groups in Various Forms

Under Adversaries

Philippians 1:27 Only your conversation shall be as it becomes the gospel of Messiah so-that I may hear of your affairs whether I come and see you or else am absent, so-that ye shall stand fast in one spirit with one mind, striving together for the faith of the gospel 28and terrified in nothing under your adversaries, which is an evident demonstration of perdition to them, but to you of salvation, and that of God.

The adversaries will be predominant in this situation in a physical manner. They will not be predominant in a mental manner, since they will be unsuccessful in terrifying these Saints.

Under Sinners

Hebrews 12:1 Therefore, seeing we are also compassed about with so great a cloud of witnesses, we shall lay aside every weight and the sin that does so easily beset. And we shall run the race that is set before us with patience, 2looking unto Yeshua the Author and Finisher of faith Who endured the cross for the joy that was set before Him, despising the shame. And He is set down at the right hand of the throne of God. 3For consider Him Who endured such contradiction under sinners against Himself lest ye be wearied and tire in your minds.

Yeshua placed Himself under human leadership and rulership while always being faithful to His mission and assignments given by Yehovah, and refusing to sin while doing the righteousness He had to do to accomplish His purposes.

Under a Congregation

Acts 12:5 Peter was therefore kept in prison. But prayer was made without ceasing under the congregation unto God for him.

The congregation ‘umbrellad’ over Peter in this case, praying for him.

Acts 15:3 And being brought on their way under the assembly, they passed through Phenice and Samaria, declaring the conversion of the races. And they caused great joy unto all the brethren. 4And when they were come to Jerusalem, they were received under the assembly and the apostles and elders. And they declared all things that God had done with them.

The assembly took folks in, and this became as an enclosure for those folks, taking care of their needs. Thus, they came under the aid and enjoyment of the assembly.

Under Circumcision

Ephesians 2:11 Therefore remember that ye, in time past Gentiles in the flesh who are called Uncircumcision under that which is called the Circumcision in the flesh made by hands…

These Saints used to be Gentiles—that is, of the races. They are no longer. They are not Jewish, either. They are sons and daughters of Avraham, having the same faith and Hope as Avraham, and the one promise of the Spirit of God, the resurrection of the dead. They were called uncircumcision, but truly foreskins by the group that is called Circumcision in the flesh—referring to the Jews who recognized the importance of circumcision. The use of the term foreskin to describe folks is found in ‘Old Testament’ texts more often than one might know. The following text is an example:

1 Samuel 17:36 Thy servant slew both the lion and the bear. And this uncircumcised [literally, foreskin] Palestinian shall be as one of them, seeing he has defied the armies of the living God.

The use of the term foreskin to described uncircumcised Gentiles is both common and appropriate in the Bible, especially when describing a person whose life is vile/immoral on top of these other things. These folks were called this under those who were physically circumcised and who had contempt for those particular Gentiles, as David did regarding Goliath.

Under Pharisees

Luke 17:20 And when He was interrogated under the Pharisees when the kingdom of God should come, He answered them. And He said, “The kingdom of God cometh not with observation…”

Yeshua was at that moment under the jurisdiction of the Pharisees. They were interrogating Him to find what had happened.

Under the Apostles

Acts 4:36 And Yosi, who was surnamed Bar Navi under the apostles (which being interpreted is Son of Prophecy), a Levite, and of the country of Cyprus…

The apostles together gave Yosi that surname, having the right of friendship and love to call him by a nickname, or this case, a surname. They saw him as a son of prophecy because his character was like what they knew prophesies described the Israelis in the End Times. He was also a Levite.

Jude 1:17 But, beloved, remember ye the words that were previously spoken under the apostles of our Lord Messiah Yeshua…

The apostles (missionaries) infallibly spoke words. Those words were under them, since they could refrain from saying them, or they could say them. They were responsible (and credited) for the words they spoke.

Under the Brethren

Acts 15:40 And Paul chose Silas. And he departed, being recommended under the brethren unto the grace of God.

The brethren, then, could recommend or not. Anyone who was recommended by them had come under their judgment to recommend.

Acts 16:1 Then he came to Derbe and Lystra. And behold, a certain disciple was there named Timotheus, the son of a certain woman who was a Jewess. And he believed. And his father was Greek 2who was witnessed under the brethren that were at Lystra and Iconium. 3Paul desired to have him go forth with him. And he took. And he circumcised him because of the Yehudeem that were in those quarters. For they all knew that his father was Greek. 4And as they went through the cities, they delivered them the decrees (that were ordained under the apostles and elders who were at Jerusalem) to guard. 5And so were the assemblies established in the faith. And they daily increased in number. 6Now when they had gone throughout Phrygia and the region of Galatia, and were forbidden under the Spirit of the Holy-[One] to preach the word in Asia, 7they assayed to go into Bithynia after they were come to Mysia. But the Spirit did not permit them.

These verses use under to show authority, sway, or some type of relationship. It is not a locational device in these verses.

Romans 15:24 Whensoever I take my journey into Spain, I will come to you. For I trust to see you in my journey and to be brought on my way thitherward under you, if first I be somewhat filled with yours.

This text is worded in a way that would be difficult for some modern readers to understand. I will give a more literal rendering:

Romans 15:24 literally, with the pertinent part of the text: For I am hoping to see you, journeying through, and to be sent forward there under you, if first I will be filled to some degree from yours.

Paul desires to be sent on the rest of his journey after coming under the roof, fellowship, and participation of these folks: to come under them. He will be relying on them to open a place for him and to provide what is good for a traveler.

1 Corinthians 1:11 For it hath been declared unto me concerning you, my brethren, under them of Chloe, that there are contentions among you.

Chloe was a woman whose name was associated with a group. Those of Chloe reported to Paul concerning the Corinthian congregation and its several contentions that were tearing apart the congregation. This report was therefore under the authority and reputation of those folks of Chloe.

2 Corinthians 1:15 And in this confidence, I was previously minded to come unto you so-that ye will have a second benefit 16and to pass by you into Macedonia, and to come again out of Macedonia unto you, and to be brought on my way under you toward Judaea.

Paul desired to be ‘under’ their roof, fellowship, and participation while travelling. It is the same as coming ‘under’ their umbrella.

2 Corinthians 2:6 Sufficient to such a man is this punishment that was inflicted under many.

Many went together and dealt with this one person. Thus, what he suffered was under their authority and their pressure.

2 Corinthians 3:2 Ye are our epistle written in our hearts, known and read under all men, 3manifestly declared to be the epistle of Messiah ministered under us, written—not with ink, but—with the Spirit of the living God; not in tables of stone, but in fleshy tables of the heart.

What is the timing of this text? This must be future. All men didn’t know about these folks in the past.

If this epistle (letter) is known and read under all men, that means that it is being considered by these folks looking at it critically. In the same way, those who minister are ‘over’ those to whom they minister, even if regular rank is reversed. (Thus, a private in the military can minister to a general; during that time, the general is under the ministry of the private.)

2 Corinthians 8:18 And we have sent the brother whose praise is in the gospel throughout all the congregations with him, 19and not only, but who was also chosen under the congregations to travel with us with this grace that is administered under us to the glory of the same Lord, and of your ready mind 20avoiding this, that no man should blame us in this abundance that is administered under us.

The congregations had authority to choose; this brother was chosen under the authority of that set of congregations. Paul and his companions also had authority, power and responsibility to minister to others. They administered a gift. That means that they gave a gift to those who needed it. The gift consisted of a physical item—probably currency, so that the recipients could purchase what they badly needed.

1 Thessalonians 2:14 For ye, brethren, became followers of the Congregations of God in Messiah Yeshua that are in Judaea. For ye also have suffered like things under your own countrymen even as they under the Yehudeem 15who both killed the Lord Yeshua and their own prophets, and have persecuted us. And they don’t please God. And they are contrary to all men 16forbidding us to speak to the races so-that they might be saved, to always fill up their sins. For the wrath is come upon them to the uttermost.

This text, like so many others, is an End-Times text that sounds like a historic text. This group forbids the Israelis from speaking to the races regarding Salvation. For that cause, wrath has come upon them to the uttermost, and the uttermost is the Tribulation. This was not occurring in Paul’s day. Paul himself was never forbidden to speak to the Gentiles; he did that on a regular basis. Yet, this future group will be very much like the subgroup of the Yehudeem, a group of Israelis that called itself ‘the Jews’ and that maintained the strongest and highest position of ethical/moral rulership in Israel. This group in Yeshua’s day included some were greatly feared Yehovah and believed in Yeshua in the fullest, truest, and most righteous sense, including Nicodemus. It also included some who desired to be in the ‘in group’ and who did physical actions to keep themselves looking righteous. This group had another fraction: those who were terrified of losing their positions and who loved the open accolades and praises of fellow Jews in their group. This last bunch was willing to commit murder for the ‘greater good of Israel,’ but really for the maintenance of their own positions. They will have an equivalent future group that will rule in Israel before the Tribulation begins.

Considering all the members of the group known as ‘the Yehudeem’ as evildoers is akin to claiming that all Christians are evil because there are some who would murder to maintain their positions in Christianity. Most Christians are groupies, and don’t care about what the Bible says; they want to be in the ‘in group.’ A very few Christians truly hold the faith and are born of God.

The Yehudeem wielded great authority and power in Israel in history, and will do the same in the future.

Hebrews 2:3 How shall we escape if we neglect so great a salvation that began to be spoken by the Lord at the first, and was confirmed unto us under them that heard …

Those who heard confirmed that Salvation unto the Israelis. Thus, the Salvation was confirmed under them—that is, under their testimony. This use of under has to do with a person’s or group’s speaking with those whom they are addressing being in the position of listening, whether they believe it or not. This is classified as being under the speech.

Under the Builders

Acts 4:11 This is the stone that was set at nothing under you builders, that is become the head of the corner. 12And there isn’t salvation in any other. For there is no other name given among men in which we must be saved under the heavens.

The materials that workers use to build are under their usage and under their decisions. “Under the heavens” is locational.

Under the Yehudeem

Acts 20:3 And when they laid wait for him under the Jews as he was about to sail into Syria, he purposed to return through Macedonia.

That group of Yehudeem (a Jewish sect that considered themselves real Jews) gave authority to others to waylay him. Thus, they worked under the authority of this sect. (He went another way to escape.)

Acts 23:27 This man was taken under the Jews, and would have been killed under them. Then I came with an army and rescued him, having understood that he was a Roman.

This soldier testified how he changed Paul’s situation, taking him from under the power and authority of a mob, knowing he would have been killed under their hand.

Acts 23:30 And a plot being revealed to me under the Jews against the man, and I sent at once to thee, having charge of bonds, and also commanding to the accusers the things to say before thee being about him. Farewell.

This group of Yehudeem had plotted under their own authority to kill him.

Acts 26:2 “I think myself happy, king Agrippa, because I shall answer for myself this day before thee touching all the things whereof I am accused under the Jews…”

Had he said, “by the Jews,” the text would have been different. By saying under, however, he isn’t directly accusing the Jews of accusing him, but that he was accused while under their power and authority.

Acts 26:6 “And now I stand and am judged for the hope of the promise made under God unto our fathers 7unto which promise our twelve tribes hope to come, instantly serving God day and night, for which hope’s sake, king Agrippa, I am accused under the Jews.”

This shows the expression, “under God.” It is under His action, His authority, His power, that the promise was made. In a similar manner, Paul’s arrest was made under the action, authority and power of the Yehudeem.

2 Corinthians 11:24 I received forty stripes save one five times under the Jews.

Paul was arrested, tried, and beaten five separate times, receiving 39 stripes each time while in the custody of the group known as the Yehudeem. Thus, being in the custody of this group was being under this group. This particular text will especially explain the phrase, under the law.

Under Armies

Luke 21:20 And when ye shall see Jerusalem compassed under armies, then know that the desolation thereof is nigh.

An occupation or an attack is under the jurisdiction of an opposing army.

Under Soldiers

Acts 21:35 And when he came upon the stairs, so it was, that he was carried under the soldiers for the violence of the people.

He wasn’t physically carried under the soldiers, since they would have stepped on him. Instead, he was transported under the protection and authority of the soldiers.

Under Races/Nations

Matthew 24:9 “Then they shall deliver you up to be humiliated. And they shall kill you. And ye shall be hated under all nations for the sake of My Name.”

Again, many Israelis will be placed under the jurisdiction, authority and power of all races during the Tribulation. Folks from all races will hate them even when they are in authority over the Israelis.

Luke 21:24 And they shall fall by the edge of the sword and shall be led away captive into all races. And Jerusalem shall be trodden down under the races until the times of the races are fulfilled.

This text definitely demonstrates the concept of under the authority or under the thumb. Jerusalem at our very time is no free city. The races tread on it even if they come as tourists. Many have no appreciation for Jerusalem as a city that will be under Yehovah and the Jews. They see the Israelis as occupiers.

Acts 10:22 And they said, “Cornelius the centurion, a righteous man and one who fears God and is of good report under all the race of the Jews, was warned from God under a holy angel to send for thee into his house and to hearken-to words from thee.”

The race of the Jews acts as one organism. This group reported regarding those under it. Though Cornelius was not Jewish, he was in a location where the Jews held sway. Thus, he came under the Jews even if he supposedly was over them. They reported very good things concerning him.

A holy angel was given the responsibility and assignment to warn Cornelius to send for Peter and to hearken to his words.

Under a Location

Under Heavens

Luke 17:24 For as the lightning that lightens out of the one under the heavens shines unto the other under the heavens, so shall also the Son of man be in His day.

This text appears to be locational in its usage of under.

Acts 2:5 And there were Jews, devout men, dwelling in Jerusalem from every race under the heavens.

This text again shows location. This verse is a miniature of what will happen in the End Times.

Colossians 1:21 And yet He has now reconciled you (who were at one time alienated and enemies in mind by wicked works) 22in the body of His flesh through death to present you holy and unblameable and unreproveable in His sight 23if ye continue grounded and settled in the faith, and are not moved away from the Hope of the gospel to which ye have hearkened and which was preached to every creation that is under the heavens, of which I Paul am made a minister.

The expression, “under the heavens,” describes a location as we would expect. It also describes an authority with the heavens describing rulership. Yehovah’s throne is in the heavens and He rules from the heavens.

Under Methods of Living and Thinking

Under a Doctrine

Acts 17:19 And they took him, and brought him unto Areopagus, saying, May we know what this new doctrine is, under which thou speakest?

Paul himself was speaking under the doctrine—that is, he received that doctrine, and was faithfully conveying it to others. He worked under the doctrine.

Under a Lifestyle/Conversation

2 Peter 2:7 …and delivered righteous Lot, vexed under the filthy lifestyle of the wicked…

Lot was a resident of the city of Sodom. He knew the lifestyle of the folks from the edge, and how they attacked, and raped sojourners. He also knew that the majority of citizens of Sodom were not violent like this, but they also were not doing anything about what was occurring. What the citizens didn’t know would kill them! They didn’t know that Yehovah holds folks responsible for what they do, including ignoring the plight of sojourners in their midst. Lot determined to aid the two sojourners by bringing them to his home. When they brought violence and threat to his doorstep, he refused to give the sojourners over to them. He thus demonstrated his own righteousness. He was still under those wicked ones from the edge, since he lived in that city. He refused to do wrong, however.

Under Conscience

John 8:9 And they who heard it went out one by one beginning at the eldest unto the last, being convicted under conscience. And Yeshua was left alone, and the woman standing in the midst.

There is no location that can be said to be under one’s conscience. They were convicted under the sway and power of conscience.

1 Corinthians 10:25 Whatsoever is sold in the bodega, eat, asking no question for conscience sake. 26For the earth is Yehovah’s and her fullness. 27If any of them who believe not bid you, and ye be disposed to go, eat whatsoever is set before you, asking no question for conscience sake. 28But if any man says unto you, “This is offered in sacrifice unto idols!” do not eat for his sake who showed it and for conscience sake. For the earth is Yehovah’s, and her fullness. 29Conscience, I say—not thine own, but of the other! For why is my liberty judged under another’s conscience? 30For if I am a partaker by grace, why am I evil spoken of for that for which I give thanks? 31Whether ye eat, therefore, or drink, or whatsoever ye do, do all to the glory of God. 32Don’t give an offence!—neither to the Jews nor to the Greeks, nor to the congregation of God 33even as I please all in all, not seeking my own profit, but that of many, that they may be saved.

Verse 29 uses under showing that the conscience that rules is the question. One person’s liberty cannot be judged by another person’s conscience. Yet, in this text, the other person’s conscience must prevail in certain circumstances. This isn’t judgment; it is appropriate consideration and circumspection. Being considerate of those around oneself is always right; the opposite will lead to harmful consequences and even death.

Under Various Persons

Under a Prophet

Matthew 3:3 For this is he that was spoken of under the prophet Isaiah, saying, “The voice of one crying in the wilderness: ‘Prepare ye the way of Yehovah! Make His paths straight!’”

The prophet was given a responsibility; the responsibility was under his hand, and he did it.

Matthew 3:6 And they were baptized under him in Jordan, confessing their sins.

These folks were baptized under the teaching and leadership of John.

Matthew 3:13 Then Yeshua comes from Galilee to Jordan unto John, to be baptized under him. 14But John forbad Him, saying, “I have need to be baptized under thee, and comest Thou to me?”

John and Yeshua had a discussion about authority. John thought that John himself should be immersed under Yeshua’s authority and rank not vice versa. Yeshua told him otherwise.

Matthew 27:35 And they crucified Him. And they parted His garments, casting lots so that it shall be fulfilled what was spoken under the prophet, “They parted my garments among them. And they cast lots upon my vesture.”

This future prophecy will be fulfilled during the Tribulation. This word was spoken under the responsibility and authority of the prophet who stated it.

2 Peter 3:2 …so-that ye will be mindful of the words that were previously spoken under the holy prophets…

The holy (owned) prophets spoke words, and gave teachings. Even the prophets had to study what they prophesied; they had no advantage over others who heard the words of the prophets. The words were spoken under the prophets—under their ministries.

Under Folks

Matthew 2:15 And [Yeshua] was there until the death of Herod so that it will be fulfilled what was spoken under Yehovah via the prophet, saying, “I have called my son out of Egypt.” 16Then Herod, when he saw that he was mocked under the wise men, was exceeding wroth, and sent forth, and slew all the children that were in Bethlehem, and in all the coasts thereof, from two years old and under, according to the time which he had diligently enquired of the wise men. 17Then was fulfilled that which was spoken under Jeremiah the prophet.

This will accord with “under the authority of,” or “under the auspices of” mentioned above. What Yehovah, the wise men, and Jeremiah did was to take action from the authority of their positions and responsibilities. This is akin to the statement, “by the authority vested in me.”

Matthew 6:2 Therefore, when thou doest thine alms, do not sound a trumpet before thee as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets so that they may have glory under men. Faith I say unto you, they have their reward!

Having “glory under men” means that men bestow importance on them. The authority for the glory/importance comes from men (as contrasted with authority from God).

Matthew 10:22 And ye shall be hated under all for the sake of My Name. But he who endures to the end shall be saved.

Being hated under all means that these ‘all’ will be in authority, rank and power over those who are the ‘ye,’ referring to the Israelis.

Matthew 14:8 And she, being previously instructed under her mother, said, “Give me here John Baptist’s head in a charger!”

This girl was under the authority, teaching and power of her mother.

Matthew 17:12 But I say unto you that Elijah is already come. And they didn’t know him. And they have done unto him whatsoever they willed. The Son of man shall also suffer in this manner under them.

This text makes the most sense if its timing is established as an End Times text. (Most texts are that way, and are not recognized as such by those who claim to be the strongest and straightest believers in the Bible.)

The Son of man, Yeshua, placed Himself under the authority and power of the Israelis for the purpose of being their sacrifice. Yet, He only did righteousness.

Matthew 19:12 “For there are some eunuchs who were so born from their mother’s womb. And there are some eunuchs who were made eunuchs under men. And there are eunuchs who have made themselves eunuchs for the sake of the kingdom of the heavens.”

Those who are made eunuchs under men, that is, under the authority and command of men, include Daniel, Azaryah, Mishael and Khananyah, etc.

Matthew 23:1 Then Yeshua spoke to the multitude and to His disciples, 2saying, “The scribes and the Pharisees sit in Moshe’s seat. 3All therefore whatsoever they bid you observe, observe and do. But don’t ye do after their works. For they say and do not. 4For they bind heavy and grievous-to-be-borne burdens, and lay on men’s shoulders, but they will not move them with one of their fingers. 5But they do all their works in order to be seen of men. They make their phylacteries broad and enlarge the borders of their garments. 6And they love the uppermost rooms at feasts and the chief seats in the synagogues 7and greetings in the markets and to be called under men, ‘My great one!’ ‘My great one!’”

Men take upon themselves the position, right, authority, power, and command to give honours to others. They give titles to their friends. This is not necessarily backed up by Yehovah, since Yehovah does not respect persons of men—that is, He does not honour human ranking systems.

Matthew 27:12 And when He was accused under the chief priests and elders, He answered nothing.

Yeshua was under the jurisdiction of the chief priests and elders during this part of His trial.

Mark 2:3 And they come unto Him, bringing one sick of the palsy who was borne under four.

Four persons had the responsibility of carrying Him.

Mark 5:1 And they came over unto the other side of the sea into the country of the Gadarenes. 2And when He was come out of the ship, immediately there met him a man out of the tombs with an unclean spirit 3who had dwelling among the tombs. And no man could bind him—no, not with chains, 4because he had been often bound with fetters and chains, and the chains had been plucked asunder under him, and the fetters broken in pieces! And none could tame him.

The chains that were under the usage of this man could not hold him. He was better than Houdini.

Mark 13:13 And ye shall be hated under all for the sake of My Name. But he that shall endure unto the end, the same shall be saved. 14But when ye shall see the abomination of desolation (spoken of under Daniel the prophet) standing where it ought not (let him that readeth understand), then let them that be in Judaea flee to the mountains.

The Israelis will be hated under the authority and power of all (referring to folks in the races).

Daniel the prophet spoke, and his prophecy was under his responsibility and authority.

Mark 16:9 Now when Yeshua was risen early the first day of the week, He appeared first to Mary Magdalene, out of whom He had cast seven devils. 10And she went and told them that had been with Him, as they mourned and wept. 11And they, when they had heard that He was alive and had been seen under her, believed not.

She is the one who reported seeing Him. Thus, the telling of the event was under her authority and responsibility.

Luke 2:18 And all they that heard wondered at those things that were told them under the shepherds.

The shepherds were given the responsibility of handling the information about the birth of the Messiah.

Luke 4:15 And He taught in their synagogues, being glorified under all.

All who heard Him saw His importance.

Luke 9:8 And under some, that Elias had appeared; and of others, that one of the old prophets was risen again.

Again, some believed the claim that Elijah had appeared. This was taught under (under the convincing or authority of) some teachers.

Luke 14:8 When thou art bidden under anyone to a wedding, sit not down in the highest room; lest a more honourable man than thou be bidden under him.

The first under shows the authority and the right of the one doing the bidding. That person is permitted and given the responsibility to call guests to the wedding. The second under is the same, but this time the one arranging the seating order has the authority to move folks higher or lower in the seating order.

Luke 21:16 And ye shall be betrayed both under parents and brethren and kinsfolks and friends. And shall they cause to be put to death from you. 17And ye shall be hated under all for my name’s sake.

Under in this verse has to do with relationships, not location. Those being put to death will be under the protection, or supposed protection of relationships of parents, brethren, kinsfolks and friends; but they won’t protect them, thinking that they are terrible doers of evil or are risking the lives of others by their faith in Yeshua. The result will be that relationships with all will prove of no value to protect them, since all will turn on them.

Acts 22:11 And when I could not see for the glory of that light, being led by the hand under them that were with me, I came into Damascus. 12And one Ananias, a devout man according to the law, having a good report under all the Jews who dwelt.

He was led by the hand under the guidance and leadership of those who were with him. There was also a devout Torah-following man who had a good reputation. All the Jews in that area reported of his good character. Their report was under them—that is, it was under their testimony.

Acts 23:10 And when there arose a great dissension, the chief captain, fearing lest Paul should have been pulled in pieces under them, commanded the soldiers to go down, and to take him by force from among them, and to bring him into the castle.

Paul was under the power of this mob. The chief captain determined to bring Paul under his own authority for Paul’s protection.

1 Corinthians 2:12 Now we have received—not the spirit of the world, but—the Spirit Who is of God so that we shall know the things that are freely given to us from God 13which things we also speak—not in the words that man’s wisdom teaches, but that the Spirit of the Holy-[One] teaches, comparing spiritual things with spiritual. 14But the natural man doesn’t receive the things of the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness unto him. And he cannot know because they are spiritually discerned. 15But He Who is Spiritual judges all things, yet He Himself isn’t judged under a man. 16For who has known the mind of Yehovah, and he will instruct Him? But we have the mind of the Messiah.

The One Who is Spiritual is Yehovah; is Yeshua; is the Spirit of Yehovah; He will never be judged under a man. Even when Pilate was placed to judge Yeshua, Pilate was being judged, and Pilate knew it. Pilate could not judge Yeshua, because he already knew that Yeshua was innocent. There is no benefit to judge one whom a judge knows is innocent. Instead, Pilate finally gave Yeshua over to those determined to do violence, and Pilate’s wife judged Pilate! (She was angry!) No person is capable of judging God.

1 Corinthians 4:3 But with me, it is a very small thing that I should be judged under you, or under man’s judgment. Indeed, I don’t judge my own self.

Whoever is acting as judge has folks under him who are being judged. Paul could be judged and was judged, but he knew that judgment wasn’t important, since the real judgment is by Yehovah.

1 Corinthians 14:24 But if all prophesy, and there enters one who doesn’t believe or one unlearned, he is convicted under all, he is judged under all.

All in this assembly together form a unit. When they speak, they will be speaking the words of Yehovah (see surrounding text). Those who enter who don’t believe or who don’t know what this faith is about will hear the speakers who will reveal the very secrets of the hearts of the guests. They will be convicted under the authority and ministry of all, and will be judged under the same (the authority and ministry). This conviction and judgment will not be like some vile and violent form of finger-pointing; Yehovah the Spirit will give words that will strike home to these guests in a very constructive way.

2 Corinthians 12:11 I am become a fool in glorying! Ye have compelled me! For I ought to have been commended under you. For I am behind the very chiefest apostles in nothing, though I am nothing.

This group had the position of being able to commend or to censure. They didn’t commend, and the Spirit of God through Paul did not appreciate that. The Corinthian congregation had a problem that is common. Instead of seeing the things that were good, the only consideration that was addressed was that which is lacking or bad. This wasn’t the true attitude of these folks; they took the letters sent by Paul very well, and were corrected, taking that correction. They seemed to be folks who were more in the ‘junior high’ category of maturity than they should have been.

The Greek word for commend literally is to stand with. These folks should have stood with Paul and with those who accompanied him rather than just voicing their complaints and troubles so that they didn’t even help him on his journey. He told them that he intentionally made certain to be of no charge to them, and they didn’t really offer to aid him. They were so interested in their own affairs that they overlooked aiding him when he came to them to benefit them. He didn’t desire their stuff, but he did desire that they give to the poor Saints in Jerusalem.

Galatians 5:15 But if ye bite and devour one another, take heed that ye are not consumed one under another.

The consumer is ‘on top of’ the one being consumed. This shows a relationship of a stronger conquering and overpowering a weaker.

Hebrews 3:4 For every house is built under someone, but He Who built all things is God.

The person doing the building is over what is being built. Thus, what is being built is under the builder.

Hebrews 7:7 And without all contradiction, the less is blessed under the better.

The better is the one who is capable of blessing. He lays his hands on the other (in the picture of blessing which has to do with kneeling), and therefore is over that person for the time of that blessing.

Hebrews 11:23 By faith Moses, when he was born, was hidden three months under his parents, because they saw he was a proper child. And they were not afraid of the king’s commandment.

This describes the protection that Moshe’s parents gave him.

1 Peter 2:1 Therefore laying aside all malice and all guile, and hypocrisies and envies, and all evil speakings, 2desire the sincere milk of the word as newborn babies so-that ye will grow by it 3(if so be ye have tasted that the Lord is gracious), 4a living precious Stone disallowed indeed under men but chosen by God, to Whom coming, 5ye also are built up a spiritual House as living stones, a holy priesthood to offer up spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God via Messiah Yeshua.

Men did not and would not choose that Stone that is Yeshua. They didn’t and wouldn’t see Him as precious and living, but as cursed and troublesome. Thus, men in the highest spiritual authority in Israel excluded Yeshua from consideration. They would not have Him as long as the administration was under them. (Some rulers in Israel knew Who He was and believed, however. They also did works showing this belief.)

Under Physicians

Mark 5:25 And a certain woman who had an issue of blood twelve years, 26and had suffered many things under many physicians, and had spent all that she had, and was nothing bettered, but rather grew worse, 27when she had heard of Yehovah, came in the press behind, and touched His garment.

She was not located under the physicians, but was under their care and authority.

Luke 8:43 And a woman having an issue of blood twelve years, which had spent all her living upon physicians, neither could be healed under any…

She was under the care of these physicians. They could do nothing.

Under John the Baptist

Mark 1:5 And there went out unto him all the land of Judaea and they of Jerusalem. And they were all baptized under him in the Jordan River, confessing their sins.

John was given authority from Yehovah to immerse the Israelis and to prepare for Yeshua.

Mark 1:9 And he was in those days. And Yeshua came from Nazareth of Galilee. And He was baptized under John in Jordan.

Yeshua Himself came under the authority of John to be immersed.

Luke 3:7 Then he said to the multitude that came forth to be baptized under him, “Generation of vipers! Who warned you to flee from the wrath to come?”

They had come to be immersed under John’s authority and instruction.

Luke 3:19 But Herod the tetrarch, being reproved under [John the Baptist] for Herodias his brother Philip’s wife, and for all the evils that Herod had done, 20added yet this above all, so that he shut up John in prison.

John thought that he had the authority, the right and the duty to reprove Herod. He didn’t, and he was dead wrong. He had no right. Herod was a murdering swine. He was also an authority set there by Yehovah. What John did cost him his life. John usurped his authority. The same perverted actions are done today by spiritually unintelligent, zealous so-called Christians. They bring accusations of sin against sinners. (That is akin to accusing a pig of oinking.) This will bring violent retribution at a future time. John’s error was in thinking that Yeshua was very close to setting up the Kingdom of God. John had Scriptural timings all wrong. Thus, John became bold, and lost his head.

Luke 7:30 But the Pharisees and lawyers rejected the counsel of God against themselves, not being baptized under him.

These Pharisees and lawyers rejected the authority of John as well as the counsel of God. John did not come up through the ranks. So, the Pharisees and lawyers of which this text speaks (not the majority, but an arrogant minority of Pharisees, and a group of lawyers) did not accept John as in rank in their groups. Thus, they rejected the teachings and preachings of John as if he were another radical cult in Israel with no Biblical backing.

Under Moshe

Hebrews 9:19 For when every commandment had been spoken under Moses to all the people according to the Torah, he took the blood of calves and of goats, with water and scarlet wool and hyssop, and sprinkled both the book and all the people.

This describes Moshe’s administration.

Under Paul

Acts 13:45 But when the Yehudeem saw the multitudes, they were filled with envy. And they spoke against those things that were spoken under Paul, contradicting and blaspheming.

Paul gave speeches. This Jewish sect (not referring to the Jews at large) spoke against what Paul had declared. They didn’t like the draw Paul had for the multitudes that came under his sway.

Acts 16:14 And a certain woman named Lydia, a seller of purple, of the city of Thyatira, who worshipped God, heard whose heart the Lord opened, that she attended unto the things which were spoken under Paul.

Paul was a speaker; those listening were under his instruction.

Acts 17:13 But when the Jews of Thessalonica had knowledge that the word of God was preached under Paul at Berea, they came thither also, and stirred up the people.

This is the same as above.

Acts 24:26 He hoped also that money should have been given him under Paul, that he might loose him. Therefore he sent more often for him and communed with him.

This form of under can mean two things: in the place of and by the power of. The reader can read both of these meanings; they will fit. Either one would have gotten him his bribe money.

Acts 27:11 Nevertheless the centurion believed the master and the owner of the ship more than those things that were spoken under Paul.

Paul was the orator; the others were under (that is, in the hearing of and in the audience of) his oratory, though this man didn’t believe him.

Galatians 1:11 But I certify you, brethren, that the gospel that was preached under me is not after man.

This preaching was Paul’s assignment. Thus, he was over the preaching, and those to whom he preached were under him as he did this assignment. It is the same as a professor-student relationship.

Under Objects and Powers

Under Objects

Matthew 5:13 Ye are the salt of the land. But if the salt has lost his savour, with what shall it be salted? It is thenceforth good for nothing but to be cast out and to be foot-trodden under men. 14Ye are the light of the world. A city that is set on a hill cannot be hid. 15And men don’t light a candle and put it under a bushel, but on a candlestick. And it gives light unto all that are in the house.

In verse 13, being foot-trodden under men means that men will have the power and the means to tread it into the ground. Verse 15 uses “under a bushel,” directly using the proposed definition. The bushel itself is the container for the candle as if it is an authority over the candle. No one with sense lights a candle and puts it under the auspices of a bushel; why make a small light, then blot out its rays? That is senseless.

Matthew 8:8 The centurion answered and said, “Sir, I am not worthy that Thou should come under my roof. But only speak the word, and my servant shall be healed. 9For I am a man under authority, having soldiers under me. And I say to this man, ‘Go!’ and he goes, and to another, ‘Come!’ and he comes, and to my servant, ‘Do this!’ and he does it.”

This centurion understood concepts of authority. He stated, “I am not worthy that Thou should come under my roof.” He was speaking regarding authority: “under the authority” or “under the protection” of his roof. He was not denying Yeshua’s right to come under his roof, but rather was declaring that Yeshua was higher in rank, and that the centurion should rather come under Yeshua’s roof in terms of ranking officers. He explained this when he said, “I am a man under authority,” since he is under orders from those above him. A higher-ranking officer doesn’t come into the tent of a lower-ranking man to sit in front of his desk, but does the opposite: he calls for the lower-ranking man to come to his tent and sit or stand before his desk. The soldiers who are under him must stand at attention before him, and not vice versa.

Matthew 8:24 And, behold, there arose a great tempest in the sea, insomuch that the ship was covered under the waves. But He was asleep.

The waves were the boss; the ship was in the grip of those waves.

Matthew 23:37 “Jerusalem! Jerusalem that kills the prophets and stones them who are sent unto thee, how often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathers her chickens under wings, and ye would not!”

When this hen gathers chickens under wings, she is acting as their authority and protector.

Mark 4:21 And He said unto them, “Is a candle brought to be put under a bushel, or under a bed, and not to be set on a candlestick?”

Placing a candle or an oil lamp under the cover and authority of a bushel or a bed is senseless and dangerous.

Mark 4:30 And He said, “Whereunto shall we liken the kingdom of God? Or, with what comparison shall we compare it? 31Like a grain of mustard seed that is less than all the seeds that are in the land when it is sown in the land. 32But when it is sown, it grows and becomes greater than all herbs. And it shoots out great branches so that the fowls of the air will lodge under the shadow of it.”

This ‘kingdom of God’ is a monstrosity. It starts out with an impossible description: a grain of mustard seed that is less than, or small than all seeds. This, of course, is no natural mustard. Its seed is not even close to the smallest of herb seeds; many are smaller. But the parable isn’t describing what occurs in nature, but rather a freakish occurrence that will perfectly parallel the ‘kingdom of God’ in its monstrous and freakish proportions. Thus, smallest of all seeds in existence that are sown grows. It becomes greater than all herbs, and thus is larger than the largest banana, since the largest herb on earth is the banana. It then puts out branches, and these must be woody to tolerate the great weight and torque they will endure. So, this herb has morphed into a huge tree. The fowls of the air, typifying demons, will lodge under its shadow—that is, under the area of its sway and authority. Therefore, it will be exactly what gardener did not desire or intend, since he planted a garden for herbs, not a monster that overcame his and all his neighbours’ lands. This perfectly describes modern Christianity, as do several parables of the same nature. True Christianity was never resident in church buildings made of wood and stone. It was also not invasive, and it was no good place for demons. It could not grow large, since the number of those who are in faith is always far, far smaller than the number of those not in faith (with the exception of the times of the beginning of the Millennium).

Luke 7:6 Then Yeshua went with them. And when he was now not far from the house, the centurion sent friends to him, saying unto him, “Lord, trouble not thyself. For I am not worthy that thou shouldest enter under my roof. 7Therefore, neither thought I myself worthy to come unto thee. But say in a word, and my servant shall be healed. 8For I also am a man set under authority, having under me soldiers. And I say unto one, ‘Go!’ and he goeth; and to another, ‘Come!’ and he cometh; and to my servant, ‘Do this,’ and he doeth it.

The first is “under my roof.” That doesn’t speak of just a location, but a jurisdiction. This word therefore refers to some authority, not just to a location.

The second is “I am a man set under authority.” It indicates the hierarchy of rank. Again, it isn’t a physical location.

The third is “having soldiers under me.” This is again an issue of hierarchy, not of physical position. The expression, “under the law,” will fit the same category.

Luke 8:14 And that which fell among thorns are they, which, when they have heard, go forth, and are choked under cares and riches and pleasures of this life, and bring no fruit to perfection.

Thus, cares, riches and pleasures of this life become authorities and hold sway over these folks so that they are unable to have fruit that comes to ripeness. They may begin to bear fruit, and they have plenty, but none of it comes to ripeness.

Luke 11:33 No man, when he hath lighted a candle, putteth it in a secret place, neither under a bushel, but on a candlestick, that they which come in may see the light.

This text gives the appearance of location only: under a bushel. That does not mean that this word under is only a location or is only an issue of authority; it can be used for either and for both.

Luke 13:34 Jerusalem! Jerusalem that killest the prophets, and stonest them that are sent unto thee; how often would I have gathered thy children together, as a hen her brood under wings, and ye would not!

When a hen gathers her brood under wings, this is a location, but it is also an umbrella of protection. Therefore, she is the authority over her brood.

John 1:48 Nathanael saith unto him, “Whence knowest Thou me?” Yeshua answered and said unto him, “I saw thee when thou wast under the fig tree before Philip called thee.”

This is particular to location unless one considers the shadow of the fig tree as being like under the protection from sun.

Acts 8:6 And the people gave heed unto those things under which Philip spoke with one accord, hearing and seeing the miracles which he did.

Philip had a particular set of topics. Thus, those topics were under his speech.

Romans 3:13 Their throat is an open sepulchre. They have used deceit with their tongues. The poison of asps is under their lips.

While the poison is described locationally as being under their lips, the text describes that their lips rule over the poisons they deliver to others!

1 Corinthians 6:12 All things are lawful unto me, but all things are not expedient. All things are lawful for me, but I will not be dominated under any.

This particular text is very important for our understanding of the expression, under. Domination, authority over, mastering, ruling over, etc. all imply some form of rank in the life of another. One who is under may be a slave or a visitor, may be treated as an enemy or may be shown great love. Whoever receives the action of another is under that person whether the person desires it or not. If I receive a cup of water, I have received it under the giver. If I have received a fist in my face, I have received it under the striker.

One who is dominated under another is under that person’s power, authority, bonds, whatever. That person cannot freely act. A person who will not be dominated will act regardless of all physical constraints, determining to do what the person will do. If the person is tied hand and foot and the person desires to strike, the person will use his head. In other words, the person will not accept domination even if it means that the person will be hurt, damaged or killed. If a person is being tortured, and the person responds to the torturer with a contempt that ignores the torture, the person is refusing to be dominated. The person is still under the torturer, but that is only true of the person’s physical body; the person will behave as if free and not being dominated.

According to translations, Paul stated, “All things are lawful unto me.” What the Greek language indicates is that he said, “All things exist unto me.” Did he believe that he had the freedom to sin, and yet it was fine and lawful for him? Could he eat pork, and be guiltless before Yehovah? Is this what he was saying? That would set Scriptures in conflict with Scriptures. If he said, however, “All things exist unto me, but all things are not expedient. All things exist for me, but I will not be dominated under any,” he was indicating that there are many things in this world, and all are to advantage in their places. That doesn’t mean that taking advantage of them is expedient—that is it wise or even right. A man might see a beautiful chariot that belongs to his neighbour. Stealing it isn’t expedient. A person whose desires go for his neighbour’s property is dominated by that object as if it is a god. The same is true for pork and Paul. Pigs exist. Pig meat is edible. It is not expedient for Paul to eat pig meat, and he will not be dominated by the taste or smell of cooking pork. Every person is surrounded by things that exist and that are good in their own stations and places, but are not good for every person to use as the person wishes. Sodium Cyanide exists. It is very useful as a chemical reagent, and can be used to manufacture vital things in life. It is wise or expedient to drink it, however.

Under the Yoke

1 Timothy 6:1 As many servants as are under the yoke shall count their own masters worthy of all honour so-that the name of God and doctrine shall not be blasphemed.

Being under this yoke shows a relationship of master to slaves. An animal that is under a yoke is controlled by that yoke.

Under Wind or Waves

Matthew 11:7 And as they departed, Yeshua began to say unto the multitudes concerning John, “What did ye go out into the wilderness to see? A reed shaken under the wind?”

The wind has the power and authority over the reed, in this picture.

Matthew 14:24 But the ship was now in the midst of the sea, tossed under waves. For the wind was contrary.

Again, the waves were the boss.

Luke 7:24 And when the messengers of John were departed, he began to speak unto the people concerning John, “What went ye out into the wilderness for to see? A reed shaken under the wind?”

A reed that is shaken under the wind is under its power. We use by, but the word by only shows causation. Under, on the other hand, shows authority.

Acts 27:41 And falling into a place where two seas met, they ran the ship aground. And the forepart stuck fast, and remained unmoveable. But the hinder part was broken under the violence of the waves.

The violence of the waves ruled over the hind part of the ship!

James 3:4 Also behold the ships that, though so great and are driven under fierce winds, yet they are turned about under a very small helm, whithersoever the governor impulsively wills. 5Even so, the tongue is a little member, and boasts great things. Behold, how great a matter a little fire kindles! 6And the tongue is a fire—a world of iniquity! The tongue is so among our members: that it defiles the whole body and sets the course of nature on fire. And it is set on fire under Gehenna.

Fierce winds rule ships—or so it seems. Yet, a very small helm turns the ships! Thus, ships are under both the winds and the helm.

The tongue of everyone ruled by it will be set on fire under Gehenna’s authority. (Gehenna is another name for the Lake of Fire and Sulfur.)

2 Peter 2:17 These are wells without water, clouds that are carried under a tempest; to whom the mist of darkness is reserved for ever.

The tempest is the agent over the clouds, pushing them where it is going. This text describes persons, however. A person who is a well without water is a person who can offer no substance that will sustain life. Such a well is an empty hole; these a person is an empty hole. They are also clouds that are carried under the authority of a tempest, and therefore are very much part of the tempest.

Jude 1:12 These are spots in your love feasts, when they feast with you, feeding themselves without fear. They are clouds without water carried about under winds, trees whose fruit withers, without fruit, twice dead, plucked up by the roots…

These are dry clouds being carried under the power of winds.

Revelation 6:13 And the stars of heaven fell unto the earth even as a fig tree casts her untimely figs when she is shaken under a mighty wind.

The mighty wind is the force that shakes the trees and makes the fruit fall. The trees do not volunteer to be shaken; they are under the grip of the wind.

Under a Curse

Galatians 3:10 For as many as are from the works of the law are under the curse. For it is written, “Cursed is everyone who doesn’t continue in all things that are written in the scroll of the law to do them.”

Being from the works of the law shows source. These folks are established in their zeal to do the works of the Torah. Saul of Tarshish was an example of such folks. Thus, they are considered from the works of the Torah: whatever they do is from what they believe to be the proper works of the Torah. Faith is no issue; they see themselves as doing its works. They do not know that doing the works of the Torah without faith will lead to two opposite consequences. As long as they are properly doing the works, they have nothing counting against them in those works. If they do works that are sinful, however, and all do, they now have a deficit—a debt to the Torah and to justice. They are therefore under the Torah’s curse since the Torah specifies curses for those who don’t continue in all things written in the scroll of the Torah to do those things.

There is a great difference between being “from the works of the Torah” and being “in the Torah.” A person can easily be “in the Torah” (that is, a Torah abider, one who does what is appropriate according to his or her station in the Torah, and also who does not do what is inappropriate according to the same station) and doing what is right by faith. This is not well understood today. Most in Christianity are under the illusion that being an “in the Torah” person eliminates faith. That is a great error. A person who is a “from the works of the Torah” person will not have a proper faith. That person will also attempt to do right by his or her view, or his or her rabbi’s view, of what is right according to the Torah. That person, however, has a type of faith that is real and is wrong because it doesn’t provide a true means of forgiveness of sin or of a way to turn permanently from sin and sinning. The Teaching of Yehovah was not designed to do that. Had it been, there would not have been a need for a sacrifice that greatly exceeded all sacrifices listed in the Torah.

Those who are “in the Torah” must have faith with that in order to be turned from sin and sinning, and that faith must be in the extra provision that Yehovah sent to truly remove sin. Those who are “from the works of the Torah” will not be able to tolerate that faith as long as they believe that the works they do take care of the sins they also do.

Under Darkness

Jude 1:6 And He has reserved the angels in everlasting chains under darkness unto the judgment of the great day that didn’t keep their first estate, but left their own habitation.

The darkness is over these chained angels; they are under the authority and power of darkness. They will later be loosed in order to attack bad guys (as described in Revelation).

Under Death

Acts 2:22 “Ye men of Israel, hearken-to these words! Yeshua of Nazareth, a man approved from God among you by miracles and wonders and signs that God did via Him in the midst of you, as ye yourselves also know, 23ye have taken Him, being delivered by the determinate counsel and foreknowledge of God. And ye have crucified and slain by wicked hands, 24Whom God raised up, having loosed the pains of death. For, it was not possible that He should be held under it.”

Again, death is no location. Being held under death is under the force, influence, jurisdiction, and etc. of death.

Under Evil

Romans 12:21 Be not overcome under evil, but overcome evil with good.

These folks will be under the rule of evil, as the Germans were under Hitler. They will be suffering great oppression. The only reasonable response is to do good. Those who join in assassinations will only promote the justification of violence.

Under Killing Items

Revelation 9:18 The third part of men was killed under these three: from the fire and from the smoke and from the brimstone that issued from their mouths.

This text uses both under and from where from shows source and under shows the authority to kill.

Under Lust

James 1:14 Every man is tempted when he is drawn away under his own lust, and enticed.

A man’s lust can easily become an authority and drive over him if he desires to relinquish self-control.

Under Sin

Romans 3:9 “What then? Are we better than they? No! In no wise! For we have before proved both Jews and Greeks, that they are all under sin!”

Sin rules over them!

Romans 7:14 For we know that the Torah is spiritual. But I am carnal, sold under sin.

The Torah teachings spiritual things of God by physical motions, objects and times. Whatever is spiritual is of, from, or pertaining to the Spirit of God.

Paul was remembering what his condition was before he came to faith in Yeshua. He is speaking this in the present tense because he is remembering. Many careless readers have not understood this, and have thought that he was describing his condition at the time of the writing of the letter to the Romans. Had that been the case, how dare he command others to not sin and to live righteously while he declares his own personal failure to do the same. He by the Spirit of Yehovah condemns those who are breakers of the Torah while telling others to live according to it.

Under the Mind

Colossians 2:18 No man shall beguile you of your reward in voluntary humility and worshipping of messengers, intruding into those things that he hasn’t seen, vainly puffed up under his fleshly mind, 19and not holding the Head from which all the body increases with the increase of God, ministered by joints and bands, having nourishment and knit together.

The Spirit of God through Paul is warning these folks to beware so that they are not suckered by others causing them to lose their reward. Those who are suckered voluntarily humble themselves before humans whom they see as messengers; they prostrate to these messengers and do what they say instead of considering the Word of God. The text switches to a singular pronoun: “that he hasn’t seen,” referring to one messenger at a time. Such a messenger is intruding into things that he hasn’t seen, and thus doesn’t know. He is emptily and idolatrously puffed up (being arrogant) under the authority and directly of his fleshly mind—a mind that is ruled by his own lusts. He doesn’t hold the Head—Messiah Yeshua—but instead is acting as the head, as if he himself is the messiah sent to these folks.

Under Life

2 Corinthians 5:4 For we who are in a tabernacle do groan, being burdened—not that we would be unclothed, but clothed upon, so that mortality will be swallowed up under life.

Who swallows what in this text? Mortality is swallowed under the authority and power of life.

Under the Light

Ephesians 5:12 For it is a shame even to speak of those things that are done under them in secret. 13But all things that are reproved are made manifest under the light. For whatsoever makes manifest is light.

Those things done under them are done in the areas where they have power and the position to do them. It isn’t that they are right to do them, but they have a certain sway and authority to affect persons and objects in their area of control. Thus, with gang rape, a group has a woman under its power and authority even if there is no right to be in authority; that group rapes the woman under the group.

The second use of under in this text is just like it is in English. He was put under the light. That is a term describing interrogation and very close inspection. The light may or may not be physically above the person, but the person is being ruled by that light during that interrogation.

Under a Footstool

James 2:3 And ye have respect to him who wears the gay clothing. And ye say unto him, “Sit thou here in a good place!” And ye say to the poor, “Stand thou there,” or “Sit here under my footstool.”

While “under my footstool” sounds very religious, especially since that is where Yeshua’s enemies turned friends will be when the Jewish Messiah comes, it is being used as an insult and as a way to speak to adults as if they are children just because they are poor.

Under Feet

Romans 16:20 And the God of peace shall quickly tread Satan under your feet.

This text describes a backfiring on Satan, his helpers, and humans who are doing what Satan desires during the Tribulation. The idea will be to stop folks from taking Jews to Mount Zion. Instead of being successful in stopping them, the God of peace will tread Satan and his forces under their feet so that those forces instead end up helping get more quickly to Mount Zion. This will happen so quickly, that the enemies won’t know what happened.

1 Corinthians 15:25 For He must reign till He has put all enemies under His feet. 26The last enemy that shall be destroyed is Death. 27For He has put all things under His feet. But when He says, “all things are put under,” [it is] manifest that He Who did put all things under Him is excepted [is the exception].

Placing enemies under one’s feet physically isn’t too smart if they are large group. Placing them under foot describes that they will become subservient, and in this case, friends. (The text describes a footstool; no person desires a footstool that attacks.) The picture is of placing one’s foot physically on the neck of an enemy, but only long enough to gain the vow of friendship from that enemy (unless the enemy will be killed).

Thus, under in this text, or under feet describes a relationship position. It is pictured by a physical position, but those enemies become friends.

Ephesians 1:22 And He put all under His feet, and gave Him, the Head over all, to the congregation…

This word under doesn’t refer to an actual location, since Yeshua would be stepping on everyone and everything during His reign. The picture of things being under His feet doesn’t show an adversarial relationship as it would in English. When we think of things being under a person’s foot, that person is stepping on those things. The same is not true in Hebrew or in this Greek description. Rather, it shows that He is elevated about all things in rank, in power, in responsibility, as if He is on a platform or a footstool that is raised in elevation above all whom He rules. This is not like placing a foot on the neck of a dog, or like what David did with fallen Goliath. It is instead a demonstration of position; all will come to the Jewish Messiah’s feet to prostrate and to receive orders.

Under Hands

Acts 17:24 God, Who made the world and all things in it, seeing that He is Lord of the heavens and the land, doesn’t dwell in temples made with hands 25and is not worshipped under men’s hands as though He needed anything, seeing He gives life and breath to all, and all things.

God is not under the authority of humans. He therefore is not worshipped under their hands, under their doings as if He could be manipulated by them in the way idols are manipulated by them. Yehovah has set Himself to be manipulated by man, as numerous texts affirm, but always being true to His character. If He could not be manipulated, giving urgent requests to Him would be futile. But even the energetic prayer of a righteous man will greatly avail. Moshe used words to stop Yehovah from destroying Israel when Yehovah was furious with Israel. Yeshua was born from the womb of a woman, and she breastfed Him. She reared Him. Thus, she manipulated Him while He grew. These manipulations are always for righteousness. He is not like an idol that must be activated by human hands or by demons.

1 Peter 5:6 Therefore, humble yourselves under the mighty hand of God so-that He will exalt you in due time.

When members of a group humble themselves under the hand of God, they are submitting to His authority and commands.

Under a Time

Under a Time

Acts 5:21 And when they heard, they entered into the Temple under the morning, and taught.

The morning still had sway at that time.

In and Under the Torah/Law

In the Torah

The following text does not conform to the texts we are considering. I place it here to show a distinct contrast with the next section that does.

Romans 3:19 Now we know that whatsoever things the Torah says, it says to them who are in the Torah so that every mouth will be stopped and all the world will become guilty before God.

Being in the Torah indicates being participant with the Torah by being the object of the Torah. All the Israelis are in the Torah; it pertains to them (like it or not).

Other texts that are akin to the above are the following:

Acts 13:39 And all who believe are justified in Him from all things from which ye in the Torah of Moshe could not be justified.

Romans 2:12 For as many as have sinned without Torah shall also perish without Torah. And as many as have sinned in the Torah shall be judged via the Torah.

Those who are in the Torah are the ones for whom the Torah was designed. That includes all the Israelis.

Romans 2:17 Behold, thou art called a Jew. And thou restest in the Torah. And thou makest thy boast of God. 18And thou knowest the will. And thou approvest the things that are more excellent, being instructed from the Torah. 19And thou art confident that thou thyself art a guide of the blind, a light of them who are in darkness, 20an instructor of the foolish, a teacher of babies—which [thou] hast the form of knowledge and of the truth in the Torah.

This person is in the Torah, being Jewish and therefore being the object of the Torah’s first usage. All to whom the Torah has been given as a command are therefore in the Torah.

Romans 2:23 Thou who makes thy boast in the Torah, dost thou dishonour God via breaking the Torah?

This person is in the Torah, and makes his boast. If he then breaks the Torah, he dishonours God.

Galatians 3:11 It is evident that no man in the Torah is justified in the sight of God. For the righteous man shall live via His faith.

A person who is in the Torah isn’t justified by being in the Torah. That person still must be justified in the sight of God by some other means. If this were not the case, all born in the Torah would automatically be justified (be rendered righteous). Being in the Torah is good, but it is a teaching tool, not a justification tool. A person who is righteous has been justified. That person will live via His faith, not via being in the Torah. The person will not violate the Torah, but the person’s faith will perfectly match the Torah’s teaching.

Galatians 5:4 Messiah is become of no effect unto you, whosoever of you are justified in the Torah! Ye are fallen from grace!

No person can be justified/rendered righteous in the Torah, since it has no mechanism for justification.

Summing this up, speakers of English understand under the law to mean what the Greek wording means when it uses in the Torah. When the text states under the Torah, it therefore is referring to something different, and that is what this document is establishing.

Under the Law/Under Torah

Romans 3:21 But now, the righteousness of God is manifested apart-from the Torah, being witnessed under the Torah and the prophets.

The righteousness of God was witnessed under two authorities: the Torah and the prophets. They both spoke of the righteousness of God that must occur. The righteousness of God was not manifested inside the Torah itself; it was manifested apart from the Torah. The crucifixion was not a Torah event. The sacrifice that was needed was described in the Torah, but the crucifixion itself was not an event of the Torah.

Romans 6:14 For sin shall not have dominion over you. For ye are not under the Torah, but under grace. 15What then? Shall we sin because we are not under the Torah, but under grace? Absolutely not!

So far, we have seen that being under something is rarely positional, though it can be. It won’t be, in this case. We have also seen that this is not the same as being in the Torah. This being under has to do with authority, power, hearing, etc. The Romans were never under the authority of the Torah since they were also not in the Torah. Yet, they are under the authority of the Grace of God, having been born of God. Those who are under the Torah still have sin dominating them.

1 Corinthians 9:20 And I became as a Jew unto the Jews so-that I will gain the Jews; as under the law to them that are under the law so-that I will gain them that are under the law; 21as without law to them that are without law that I might gain them that are without law (not being without law to God, but in the law to Messiah).

The expression, “in the law,” means exactly what we speakers of English think when we say, “under the law.” A person who is in the law is a law follower—one who is doing and living according to the Torah, or should be.

Paul described himself in three different situations: among the Jews, among the folks under the Torah, and among the races and all those who are not related to the Torah in any way. It is curious that he made a distinction between the Jews and those under the Law as if they are not the same. They mustn’t be the same. (Had they been the same, the Spirit of God through him would not have made a distinction.)

I have elsewhere proposed that “the Jews” refers to a sect: the Yehudeem, a subgroup of the Jewish People who, like the Pharisees, are determined to hold to a standard by which they can claim to be the true Jews of Israel among the Israelis.

Those who are under the law could be Jewish or non-Jewish, but they are not merely Torah abiders. They are rather another group, a group that this paper explores.

The third group is more obvious: they are folks who have nothing to do with the Torah as far as attempting to follow it in daily life.

Paul’s purpose was to deal with each as if he were part of that group so that he could properly convey Truth to each group and not presume that they understand things they didn’t.

Galatians 3:15 Brethren, I speak after the manner of men. Though [it is] but a man’s covenant, yet confirmed, no man disannuls or adds to it. 16Now, the promises were made to Abraham and his seed. He doesn’t say, “And to seeds,” as of many, but “And to thy seed,” as of One, Who is the Messiah. 17And I say this: the Torah/Teaching that was four hundred and thirty years after cannot disannul the Covenant that was previously confirmed under God in the Messiah so-that it would make the promise of no effect. 18For if the inheritance is from the Torah, [it is] no more from a promise. But God gave to Abraham via promise. 19Therefore, then, is the law? It was added because of transgressions until the Seed to whom the promise was made will come, appointed via messengers in the hand of a mediator. 20Now, a mediator is not of one, and God is One. 21Is, then, the Torah/Teaching against the promises of God? Absolutely not! For if there had been a teaching given that could have given life, verily righteousness would have been by the teaching. 22But the Scripture has concluded all under sin so-that the promise will be given from Messiah Yeshua’s faith to them who believe. 23But before faith came, we were kept under the Torah/Teaching, shut up unto the faith that will be revealed afterwards. 24Therefore the Torah/Teaching was our schoolmaster unto the Messiah so-that we will be justified from [source] faith. 25But after faith is come, we are no longer under a schoolmaster. 26For ye are all the children of God via faith in Yeshua the Messiah.

We have four under expressions:

  • Under God
  • Under sin
  • Under the Torah/Teaching
  • Under a schoolmaster

These expressions all have the same implication: being in a position where the object of the preposition is the power, authority, controlling agent and holder of what ever is being discussed.

  • Since the Covenant was confirmed under God, God was the power, authority, controlling agent and holder (giver, in this case) of the Covenant.
  • Since all are concluded under sin, sin is the power, authority, controlling agent and holder of all until an individual or group is rescued from the power of sin.
  • Since the Israelis are under Torah/Teaching, the Torah/Teaching is the power, authority, controlling agent and holder of the Israelis before faith comes.
  • Since the Israelis are no longer under a schoolmaster after faith comes, the schoolmaster no longer is the power, authority, controlling agent and holder of the Israelis; faith is; conscience is.

That schoolmaster position is excellent for its purpose: Teaching; that is exactly what Torah means. Once a person has been taught, the person’s profession will be according to the Teaching and not in violation of it, and not with contempt for the schoolmaster or the schoolmaster’s teachings. Those teachings become part of the professional person. Those teachings are a friend.

Galatians 4:1 Now, I say, the heir differs nothing from a slave as long as he is a child, though he is lord of all, 2but is under tutors and governors until the father’s appointed time. 3Even so, we were in bondage under the elements of the world when we were children. 4But when the fullness of the time was come, God sent forth His Son, made of a woman, made under the Torah/Teaching 5to redeem them who were under the Torah/Teaching so that we will receive the adoption of sons (‘sonshipment’).

Being under tutors has everything to do with authority and strictness. The tutors are strict; they are slavemasters. The next statement confirms this: “Even so, we were in bondage under the elements [foundational things, including what we learned—kindergarten] of the world when we were children.” Everyone who is somewhat older is ‘over’ a baby if the person is caring for the baby. The baby and the child are slaves to adults. Adults dictate to them. In the same manner again, Yeshua was a slave as a child under the Torah/Teaching; his obligation was to obey it in every detail. He did this all His life in order to redeem them who were also under the Torah/Teaching, who were slaves like He was, in order to receive the position of being a son of Yehovah the Father. Therefore, under has a part of it that indicates slavery, subservience.

Galatians 4:21 Tell me, ye that desire to be under the law, do ye not hear the law?

While this text seems obvious in its implications, it isn’t. Since the Greek expression of “in the Law” is what we understand to mean ‘under the law,’ the Greek expression “under the Law” has a different meaning. It has to do with being arrested by it, under its anger, in effect, as if the person isn’t free, but must do as a prisoner would do, a prisoner who violated what was right and now is facing incarceration.

Galatians 5:18 But if ye are Spirit led, ye are not under the law.

A person who is ‘Spirit led’ is one who goes where the Spirit of God takes the person and who does what the Spirit of God assigns the person to do. Such a person takes responsibility and runs with it. This is not a person who takes on responsibilities that are greater than what a person can take on to that person’s harm, but truly does what must be done for the saving of lives…

Since being under the Law is being under accusation of its violations, and thus being restricted according to the Law, being under condemnation, a person who is Spirit led will not be in such a position. That person may or may not be “in the Law” by usage of the Greek terms, but will nevertheless be in complete compliance with the righteousness that is described in the Torah, the Teaching of Yehovah, and will be righteously doing righteousness.

James 2:9 But if ye have respect to persons, ye commit sin, and are convicted as transgressors under the law.

Conviction goes along with under the law. A violator is under the Torah, convicted of its violation.


Anyone who is Biblically under the Law/Torah is either a violator of it or is in some way under its accusatory power.

A person who is Biblically in the Law/Torah is one who is either practicing it in a proper manner or who should be practicing it. All Israelis are in the Torah, whether they like it or not. If that weren’t the case, the Torah’s threats against violation would be null. The Israelis suffer the consequences of Torah violation every so many years through holocausts and expulsions that defy what other races experience. The Israelis also occasionally obtain the good promises of the Torah when they work in a unified matter for the benefit of the soil of Israel.

Those who use ‘law’ texts to supposedly prove that the Law of God (the very Word of God) has been abolished only prove their ignorance and contempt for the infallible and everlasting Word of Truth. This includes a great deal of modern Christianity. Anyone who holds any part of the Word of Yehovah in contempt is not born of God, and will have no part in the resurrection of the righteous and of the good world to come.

A Short Response to Arthur Koestler’s Book “The Thirteenth Tribe”

A Short Response to Arthur Koestler’s Book, “The Thirteenth Tribe”



Published by Random House, 1976



Arthur Koestler’s historical research and coverage on this topic is very well done. His conclusion is a matter for separate analysis.


The Bible as a Legend

Mr. Koestler comes from the viewpoint that the ‘Chosen Race’ status of the Jews (and Israel) is a legend (final paragraph, page 289). This view dismisses the Bible’s teachings (which Mr. Koester uses to his advantage when the Bible suits his purposes):


Psalms 33:12 Blessed is the nation whose God is Yehovah and the people whom He hath chosen for his own inheritance.


Psalms 106:4 Remember me, Yehovah, with the favour of Thy people. Visit me with Thy salvation that I may see the good of Thy chosen, that I may rejoice in the gladness of Thy nation, that I may glory with Thine inheritance.


He states,


In the first place, I am aware of the danger that it may be maliciously interpreted as a denial of the State of Israel’s right to exist. But that right is not based on the hypothetical origins of the Jewish people, nor on the mythological covenant of Abraham with God. [Page 285]


If the Covenant of Abraham with God is a myth, of course the Chosen Race status of the Jews is a myth, and the existence of Israel is a myth, for that matter. History then returns the Jews back to obscure origins, and relegates them to the status of inventors or propagators of the ‘One God’ myth. There is no Biblical God, in this case; He is an invention.


My Observation

As I read Mr. Koestler’s work, I waited and watched with great interest to see his evidence or proof that the Khazarian peoples and the Jews became so joined and interspersed that the Jews disappeared. I was very interested to see what he had to prove that Khazarians, not Jews, made up the genetic main part of the Eastern ‘Jews’. Perhaps I am dense, or very slanted in my views, but I somehow totally missed his proofs or evidences. I understood what he said, and I found much of it very informative. He answered very important questions I had about history and peoples. I am indebted to him for these things. Yet I failed to find strong or even weak evidence that the Jews are actually Khazarians.


Everything Mr. Koestler said about the migration after the cessation of the Khazarian empire was supposed to support his claim that the so-called Polish Jews were actually Khazarians, but another interpretation was apparent to me. When the Khazarian kingdom was overrun by other groups, the Jews who lived in the area began a migration as they had done in former centuries. Jews had always maintained a separate identity. If folks joined them and became part of Israel, this did not obscure Jewish identity.


Intermarriage and Dilution

The Bible records several groups that joined themselves to Israel:


Joshua 9:3 And when the inhabitants of Gibeon heard what Joshua had done unto Jericho and to Ai, 4They did work wilily, and went and made as if they had been ambassadors, and took old sacks upon their asses, and wine bottles, old, and rent, and bound up; 5And old shoes and clouted upon their feet, and old garments upon them; and all the bread of their provision was dry and mouldy. 6And they went to Joshua unto the camp at Gilgal, and said unto him, and to the men of Israel, We be come from a far country: now therefore make ye a league with us. 7And the men of Israel said unto the Hivites, Peradventure ye dwell among us; and how shall we make a league with you? 8And they said unto Joshua, We are thy servants. And Joshua said unto them, Who are ye? and from whence come ye? 9And they said unto him, From a very far country thy servants are come because of the name of the LORD thy God: for we have heard the fame of him, and all that he did in Egypt, 10And all that he did to the two kings of the Amorites, that were beyond Jordan, to Sihon king of Heshbon, and to Og king of Bashan, which was at Ashtaroth. 11Wherefore our elders and all the inhabitants of our country spake to us, saying, Take victuals with you for the journey, and go to meet them, and say unto them, We are your servants: therefore now make ye a league with us. 12This our bread we took hot for our provision out of our houses on the day we came forth to go unto you; but now, behold, it is dry, and it is mouldy: 13And these bottles of wine, which we filled, were new; and, behold, they be rent: and these our garments and our shoes are become old by reason of the very long journey. 14And the men took of their victuals, and asked not counsel at the mouth of the LORD. 15And Joshua made peace with them, and made a league with them, to let them live: and the princes of the congregation sware unto them. 16And it came to pass at the end of three days after they had made a league with them, that they heard that they were their neighbours, and that they dwelt among them.


Genesis 34:1 And Dinah the daughter of Leah, which she bare unto Jacob, went out to see the daughters of the land. 2And when Shechem the son of Hamor the Hivite, prince of the country, saw her, he took her, and lay with her, and defiled her. 3And his soul clave unto Dinah the daughter of Jacob, and he loved the damsel, and spake kindly unto the damsel. 4And Shechem spake unto his father Hamor, saying, Get me this damsel to wife. 5And Jacob heard that he had defiled Dinah his daughter: now his sons were with his cattle in the field: and Jacob held his peace until they were come. 6And Hamor the father of Shechem went out unto Jacob to commune with him. 7And the sons of Jacob came out of the field when they heard it: and the men were grieved, and they were very wroth, because he had wrought folly in Israel in lying with Jacob’s daughter; which thing ought not to be done. 8And Hamor communed with them, saying, The soul of my son Shechem longeth for your daughter: I pray you give her him to wife. 9And make ye marriages with us, and give your daughters unto us, and take our daughters unto you. 10And ye shall dwell with us: and the land shall be before you; dwell and trade ye therein, and get you possessions therein. 11And Shechem said unto her father and unto her brethren, Let me find grace in your eyes, and what ye shall say unto me I will give. 12Ask me never so much dowry and gift, and I will give according as ye shall say unto me: but give me the damsel to wife. 13And the sons of Jacob answered Shechem and Hamor his father deceitfully, and said, because he had defiled Dinah their sister: 14And they said unto them, We cannot do this thing, to give our sister to one that is uncircumcised; for that were a reproach unto us: 15But in this will we consent unto you: If ye will be as we be, that every male of you be circumcised; 16Then will we give our daughters unto you, and we will take your daughters to us, and we will dwell with you, and we will become one people. 17But if ye will not hearken unto us, to be circumcised; then will we take our daughter, and we will be gone. 18And their words pleased Hamor, and Shechem Hamor’s son. 19And the young man deferred not to do the thing, because he had delight in Jacob’s daughter: and he was more honourable than all the house of his father. 20And Hamor and Shechem his son came unto the gate of their city, and communed with the men of their city, saying, 21These men are peaceable with us; therefore let them dwell in the land, and trade therein; for the land, behold, it is large enough for them; let us take their daughters to us for wives, and let us give them our daughters. 22Only herein will the men consent unto us for to dwell with us, to be one people, if every male among us be circumcised, as they are circumcised. 23Shall not their cattle and their substance and every beast of theirs be ours? only let us consent unto them, and they will dwell with us. 24And unto Hamor and unto Shechem his son hearkened all that went out of the gate of his city; and every male was circumcised, all that went out of the gate of his city. 25And it came to pass on the third day, when they were sore, that two of the sons of Jacob, Simeon and Levi, Dinah’s brethren, took each man his sword, and came upon the city boldly, and slew all the males. 26And they slew Hamor and Shechem his son with the edge of the sword, and took Dinah out of Shechem’s house, and went out. 27The sons of Jacob came upon the slain, and spoiled the city, because they had defiled their sister. 28They took their sheep, and their oxen, and their asses, and that which was in the city, and that which was in the field, 29And all their wealth, and all their little ones, and their wives took they captive, and spoiled even all that was in the house.


No problem exists because of this. Israel’s status as a people is not diminished or diluted, and the ‘Chosen Race’ (Jacob’s race) is not changed. Even Mr. Koestler points out that marrying women from other races captured in a war is permitted in the Torah [and I add, as long as the women are not Canaanite].


Hitler and the Turks

If, as Mr. Koestler claims, Eastern European Jews are actually Kazars, why did Hitler determine to exterminate this ‘Turkish’ group? Why didn’t the Turkish folks protest this?


Short Memories

Why didn’t the Eastern European Khazarian Jews remember that they were Khazarian? When did their knowledge of their Khazarian ancestry disappear? Since when does a large people forget its ancestry when it changes religion? Jewish folks have always had an inclination toward their ancestry, a desire to know where they originated. Some Jewish groups have attempted to forget they were Jews because of persecutions, but they do not succeed for long. The evidence comes out, just as certain Hispanic groups in New Mexico discovered they were offspring of Spanish Jews who fled persecution.


Claiming Jewishness During Annihilation

Since when does a largely non-Jewish group claim to be Jews when this leads to greatly intensified persecution and attempts at its annihilation? Mr. Koestler did very well in showing historical patterns, but on this issue he shows the greatest ignorance.


Mass Conversion and Assimilation

Traveling Jews tend to know and recognize Jews (including converts to Judaism). When a large group becomes Jewish for political reasons (as Mr. Koestler pointed out in the case of the Khazarians), most remain nominally Jewish as long as it suits their purposes. They later revert back to their former religions when it is no longer necessary to claim the adopted religion. At least some Jewish travelers know the difference between real compatriots in the Jewish faith and folks who have adopted it for commercial and/or political reasons. The Khazarian Jews were not isolated from Jewish travelers. Mr. Koestler seems to be assuming that the entire Khazarian empire became committed converted Jews, then cast their fate with the rest of the Jews no matter what occurred, erasing their past. There is no historical precedent for this. Even the race that joined itself to Israel claiming moldy bread (cited above) was distinct in Israel years later, as King David found:


2 Samuel 21:1 Then there was a famine in the days of David three years, year after year; and David enquired of the LORD. And the LORD answered, It is for Saul, and for his bloody house, because he slew the Gibeonites. 2And the king called the Gibeonites, and said unto them; (now the Gibeonites were not of the children of Israel, but of the remnant of the Amorites; and the children of Israel had sworn unto them: and Saul sought to slay them in his zeal to the children of Israel and Judah.) 3Wherefore David said unto the Gibeonites, What shall I do for you? and wherewith shall I make the atonement, that ye may bless the inheritance of the LORD? 4And the Gibeonites said unto him, We will have no silver nor gold of Saul, nor of his house; neither for us shalt thou kill any man in Israel. And he said, What ye shall say, that will I do for you. 5And they answered the king, The man that consumed us, and that devised against us that we should be destroyed from remaining in any of the coasts of Israel, 6Let seven men of his sons be delivered unto us, and we will hang them up unto the LORD in Gibeah of Saul, whom the LORD did choose. And the king said, I will give them. 7But the king spared Mephibosheth, the son of Jonathan the son of Saul, because of the LORD’S oath that was between them, between David and Jonathan the son of Saul. 8But the king took the two sons of Rizpah the daughter of Aiah, whom she bare unto Saul, Armoni and Mephibosheth; and the five sons of Michal the daughter of Saul, whom she brought up for Adriel the son of Barzillai the Meholathite: 9And he delivered them into the hands of the Gibeonites, and they hanged them in the hill before the LORD: and they fell all seven together, and were put to death in the days of harvest, in the first days, in the beginning of barley harvest. 10And Rizpah the daughter of Aiah took sackcloth, and spread it for her upon the rock, from the beginning of harvest until water dropped upon them out of heaven, and suffered neither the birds of the air to rest on them by day, nor the beasts of the field by night. 11And it was told David what Rizpah the daughter of Aiah, the concubine of Saul, had done. 12And David went and took the bones of Saul and the bones of Jonathan his son from the men of Jabeshgilead, which had stolen them from the street of Bethshan, where the Philistines had hanged them, when the Philistines had slain Saul in Gilboa: 13And he brought up from thence the bones of Saul and the bones of Jonathan his son; and they gathered the bones of them that were hanged. 14And the bones of Saul and Jonathan his son buried they in the country of Benjamin in Zelah, in the sepulchre of Kish his father: and they performed all that the king commanded. And after that God was intreated for the land.


Mr. Koestler’s view that a group of races making up the Khazarian kingdom would altogether forget their Turkish lineage and would claim to be from Israel’s stock is not realistic. He was realistic in other areas. Inconsistency is not a good trait in a historian.


More on Dilution

I have no doubt that some Khazarians went with the Jews to Poland and other places, and that intermarriage took place. The Jews have intermarried with nearly all groups in which they have found shelter. If the Jewish race is diluted out, the Bible will become a book of lies. If this is your proposal, it is not part of my faith. The Book of Revelation speaks of 11 of the twelve tribes (chapter 7) who are still in existence in the End Times, which, according to Biblical promises, will be here for a thousand generations:


Deuteronomy 7:9 Know therefore that Yehovah thy God, He is God, the faithful God Who keepeth Covenant and grace with them who love Him and keep His commandments to a thousand generations.


1 Chronicles 16:15 Be ye mindful always of His Covenant; the word that He commanded to a thousand generations.


Psalms 105:8 He hath remembered His Covenant forever, the word that He commanded to a thousand generations.


Each of the above texts refers back to Abraham’s Covenant. If a generation is twenty years or forty, that still leaves many centuries. If Yehovah commanded it to a thousand generations, that implies that a thousand generations will exist. Yehovah is preserving Israel and Israel’s identity. The Jewish People is the People of Israel; attempts to make a distinction in order to annihilate part of Israel is an attempt to annihilate part of the Biblical promise. Mr. Koestler has no reason to believe the Bible. He is satisfied with his own religion. If you are convinced that Mr. Koestler is right about the Jews, you hold a faith similar to his.


Yehovah’s Preservation

If one takes a Biblical perspective, the Khazarian Jewish experience shows something very different: that Yehovah has preserved the Jewish People no matter where they have been driven. He has made sure they have safe havens to dwell while persecutions are occurring elsewhere. Many host countries have taken in the Jews for a time; all have eventually driven them out when they have become jealous. Yehovah has made sure that their identity has remained segregated, no matter how many have joined themselves to them. The expression ‘peculiar people’ actually means ‘segregated people’, and Yehovah is the segregator. The Israelis are segregated, yet are the benefactors of the world even if the world turns to hate them.


Caucasian Jews?

Mr. Koestler stated,


The evidence quoted in previous chapters adds up to a strong case in favour of those modern historians—whether Austrian, Israeli or Polish—who, independently from each other, have argued that the bulk of modern Jewry is not of Palestinian, but of Caucasian origin. The mainstream of Jewish migrations did not flow from the Mediterranean across France and Germany to the east and then back again. The stream moved in a consistently westerly direction, from the Caucasus through the Ukraine into Poland and thence into Central Europe.


It is no wonder that folks read such statements, and confuse Israel with Britain. Saying the Jews are from Caucasian origin is most confusing. Saying the Jews came from the Caucasus, as he does in the next statement, is very different. The Jews are not Caucasian in any sense except for some skin coloration and the location of where they lived for a time.


Directions of Jewish Migration

Jewish migration has always been in more than one direction, then turns to another, then another, then another according to where the persecutions were less and the opportunities to make a living more. I agree that some Jewish groups inhabited Khazaria, but not all. I agree that many went west, but not all. Jewish migrations have never been in one direction alone, except under the hand of Moses and Joshua. Oversimplification is not a proper way to view historical movements.


Asheknazi and Sephardi State of Israel

The State of Israel has both Sephardi and Ashkenazi Jews. They each have Chief Rabbis, and they exist together. The Ashkenazi remain Ashkenazi, and the Sephardi Sephardi. If the Ashkenazi Jews are really Turks who became the Khazars, and who turned to Judaism, why haven’t they likewise adopted Sephardi forms? And what happened to the Jews who went to Khazaria? Did they just disappear, becoming assimilated, losing their identity after many centuries of preserving it through all the traumas of history? This makes no sense. One group becomes another, and the group it becomes disappears. What kind of logic is this? Why haven’t these transforming Turks become Sephardi? Yet this whole reasoning makes no sense, since Sephardi Jews have lived among the Turks for centuries, and have remained Sephardi while the Turks have remained Turkish in its various cultures. Mr. Koestler tells us that one leader converted to Judaism, and his whole realm turned to Judaism, staying that way to this day. Why don’t these Turks in the State of Israel have good linkage and relationships with their brothers in Turkey? Jews have relationships with Jews all over the world. The Turks who inhabit Israel (according to Mr. Koestler) have good relationships with Jews (which he would claim to be of mainly Turkish derivation) all over the world; why not with the Turks themselves?


Defying Historical Patterns

I find it telling how one can use factual and convincing evidences to draw what appears to be a logical conclusion, while ignoring other obvious facts. A historian who ignores a people’s historical behaviour while studying that people is not showing much sense. Mr. Koestler writes as if the Jews were a people segregated into several groups (eastern and western) since the time of their becoming a people, then in a short time of Khazarian rule were totally assimilated into the Khazars, and at the same time the Khazars became the western Jews. Please tell Mr. Koestler that this makes no sense.


Conclusion and Thanks

Thank you for lending me this very informative book. I learned much from him, and I am only sorry that he didn’t think his conclusions through using his vast knowledge of history to come to a convincing instruction. Though I am not a historian or a scholar, I can use his knowledge of history to see what truly took place, and to be very grateful that the Khazarian kingdom was a refuge for Yehovah’s Chosen People for that period of time. It is my hope that the United States will continue to be a refuge for the Jewish People for a while longer. I know Yehovah will prove refuges for this People that is at the core of the Hope of all fearers of the Biblical God, since only they can call the Messiah to return, and will do so at the right time. I am also glad that the Jews have acquired genetic stock from many other races, since this may provide them with the means to avoid genetic detection when their enemies again attempt to annihilate them. None of these issues would be important if Gentiles were not jealous of the position of the Jews in the Bible. As Paul stated,


Romans 3:1 What advantage then hath the Jew? Or what profit is there of circumcision? 2Much every way!—chiefly because that unto them were committed the oracles of God.